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CONTENTS
Volume 11, Number 1, March 2021
 


Abstract
Experimental and numerical investigations were conducted to study the performance of a surface-fixed horizontal porous wave barrier in regular waves. The characteristics of the reflection and transmission coefficients, energy dissipation, and vertical wave force were examined versus different porosities of the barrier. Numerical simulations based on 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations with standard low-Re k-e turbulent closure and volume of fluid approach were accomplished and compared with the experimental results conducted in a 2D wave tank. Experimental measurements and numerical simulations were shown to be in satisfactory agreement. The qualitative wave behavior propagating over a horizontal porous barrier such as wave run-up, wave breaking, air entrapment, jet flow, and vortex generation was reproduced by CFD computation. Through the discrete harmonic decomposition of the vertical wave force on a wave barrier, the nonlinear characteristics were revealed quantitatively. It was concluded that the surface-fixed horizontal barrier is more effective in dissipating wave energy in the short wave period region and more energy conversion was observed from the first harmonic to higher harmonics with the increase of porosity. The present numerical approach will provide a predictive tool for an accurate and efficient design of the surface-fixed horizontal porous wave barrier.

Key Words
energy dissipation; experiments; surface-fixed horizontal porous barrier; vertical wave force; wave reflection; wave transmission

Address
Sunny Kumar Poguluri, Jeongrok Kim, Arun George and I.H. Cho: Department of Ocean System Engineering, Jeju National University,
Jeju 690-756, Republic of Korea

Abstract
Articulated loading platforms (ALPs) belongs to a class of offshore structures known as compliant. ALP motions have time periods falling in the wind excitation frequency range due to their compliant behaviour. This paper deals with the dynamic behavior of a double hinged ALP subjected to low-frequency wind forces with random waves. Nonlinear effects due to variable submergence, fluctuating buoyancy, variable added mass, and hydrodynamic forces are considered in the analysis. The random sea state is characterized by the Pierson-Moskowitz (P-M) spectrum. The wave forces on the submerged elements of the platform's shaft are calculated using Morison's Equation with Airy's linear wave theory ignoring diffraction effects. The fluctuating wind load has been estimated using Ochi and Shin wind velocity spectrum for offshore structures. The nonlinear dynamic equation of motion is solved in the time domain by the Wilson-e method. The wind-structure interactions, along with the effect of various other parameters on the platform response, are investigated. The effect of offset of aerodynamic center (A.C.) with the center of gravity (C.G.) of platform superstructure has also been investigated. The outcome of the analyses indicates that low-frequency wind forces affect the response of ALP to a large extent, which otherwise is not enhanced in the presence of only waves. The mean wind modifies the mean position of the platform surge response to the positive side, causing an offset. Various power spectral densities (PSDs) under high and moderate sea states show that apart from the significant peak occurring at the two natural frequencies, other prominent peaks also appear at very low frequencies showing the influence of wind on the response.

Key Words
aerodynamic effects; wave forces; articulated loading platform; wind-induced response

Address
Mohd Moonis Zaheer and Syed Danish Hasan: Department of Civil Engineering, Z.H. College of Engg. & Tech., AMU, Aligarh, India
Nazrul Islam: Department of Civil Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025, India
Moazzam Aslam: Civil Engineering Section, University Polytechnic, AMU, Aligarh, India

Abstract
In the present work, a 3D numerical model is proposed to study local scouring around single vertical piers with different cross-section shapes under steady-current flow. The model solves the flow field and sediment transport processes using a coupled approach. The flow field is obtained by solving the Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations in combination with the k-w SST turbulence closure model and the sediment transport is considered using both bedload and suspended load models. The proposed model is validated against the empirical measurements of local scour around single vertical piers with circular, square, and diamond cross-section shapes obtained from the literature. The measurement of scour depth in equilibrium condition for the simulations reveal the differences of 4.6%, 6.7% and 13.1% from the experimental measurements for the circular, square, and diamond pier cases, respectively. The model displayed a remarkable performance in the prediction of scour around circular and square piers where horseshoe vortices (HSVs) have a leading impact on scour progression. On the other hand, the maximum deviation was found in the case of the diamond pier where HSVs are weak and have minimum impact on the formation of local scour. Overall, the results confirm that the prediction capability of the present model is almost independent of the strength of the formed HSVs and pier cross-section shapes.

Key Words
scour; steady current flow; sediment transport; bridge piers; offshore wind turbine

Address
Amir Bordbar, Soroosh Sharifi and Hassan Hemida: School of Engineering, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK

Abstract
The nonlinear formulation using the principle of virtual work-energy for free vibration of a large-sag extensible catenary riser in two dimensions is presented in this paper. A support at one end is hinged and the other is a free-sliding roller in the horizontal direction. The catenary riser has a large-sag configuration in the static equilibrium state and is assumed to displace with large amplitude to the motion state. The total virtual work of the catenary riser system involves the virtual strain energy due to bending, the virtual strain energy due to axial deformation, the virtual work done by the effective weight, and the inertia forces. The nonlinear equations of motion for two-dimensional free vibration in the Cartesian coordinate system is developed based on the difference between the Euler's equations in the static state and the displaced state. The linear and nonlinear stiffness matrices of the catenary riser are obtained and the eigenvalue problem is solved using the Galerkin finite element procedure. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained. The results are validated with regard to the reference research addressing the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed nonlinear formulation. The numerical results for free vibration and the effect of the nonlinear behavior for catenary riser are presented.

Key Words
axial deformation; catenary riser; free vibration; large amplitude; variational method

Address
Ong-art Punjarat and Somchai Chucheepsakul: Department of Civil Engineering, King Mongkut

Abstract
The submerged U-shape breakwater interaction with the solitary wave is simulated by the Boussinesq equations using the finite-difference scheme. The wave reflection, transmission, and dissipation (RTD) coefficients are used to investigate the U-shape breakwater's performance for different crest width, Lc1, and indent breakwater height, du. The results show that the submerged breakwater performance for a set of U-shape breakwater with the same cross-section area is related to the length of submerged breakwater crest, Lc1, and the distance between the crests, Lc2 (or the height of du). The breakwater has the maximum performance when the crest length is larger, and at the same time, the distance between them increases. Changing the Lc1 and du of the U-shape breakwaters result in a significant change in the RTD coefficients. Comparison of the U-shape breakwater, having the best performance, with the averaged RTD values shows that the transmission coefficients, K_t, has a better performance of up to 4% in comparison to other breakwaters. Also, the reflection coefficients K_R and the diffusion coefficients, K_d shows a better performance of about 30% and 55% on average, respectively. However, the model governing equations are non-dissipative. The non-energy conserving of the transmission and reflection coefficients due to wave and breakwater interaction results in dissipation type contribution. The U-shape breakwater with the best performance is compared with the rectangular breakwater with the same cross-section area to investigate the economic advantages of the U-shape breakwater. The transmission coefficients, K_t, of the U-shape breakwater shows a better performance of 5% higher than the rectangular one. The reflection coefficient, K_R, is 60% lower for U-shape in comparison to rectangular one; however, the diffusion coefficients, K_d, of U-shape breakwater is 35% higher than the rectangular breakwater. Therefore, we could say that the U-shape breakwater has a better performance than the rectangular one.

Key Words
Nwogu's extended Boussinesq equations; U-shape breakwater; rectangular submerged breakwater; RTD coefficients; finite difference method

Address
Mohammad Barzegar: Department of Physical & Environmental Sciences, Texas A&M University-CC Corpus Christi, TX, USA


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