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CONTENTS
Volume 11, Number 2, June 2022
 


Abstract
This paper presents a closed-form higher-order analysis of interfacial shear stresses in RC continuous beams strengthened with bonded prestressed laminates. For retrofitting reinforced concrete continuous beams is to bond fiber reinforced prestressed composite plates to their tensile faces. An important failure mode of such plated beams is the debonding of the composite plates from the concrete due to high level of stress concentration in the adhesive at the ends of the composite plate. The model is based on equilibrium and deformations compatibility requirements in and all parts of the strengthened beam, where both the shear and normal stresses are assumed to be invariant across the adhesive layer thickness. In the present theoretical analysis, the adherend shear deformations are taken into account by assuming a parabolic shear stress through the thickness of both the RC continuous beams strengthened with bonded prestressed laminates. The theoretical predictions are compared with other existing solutions. A parametric study has been conducted to investigate the sensitivity of interface behavior to parameters such as laminate stiffness and the thickness of the laminate where all were found to have a marked effect on the magnitude of maximum shear and normal stress in the composite member.

Key Words
composite plate; continuous RC beam; interfacial stresses; shear lag effect; strengthening

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Laboratory of Geomatics and Sustainable Development, University of Tiaret, Algeria.


Abstract
A novel nonlocal model with one thermal relaxation time is presented to investigates the thermal damages and the temperature in biological tissues generated by laser irradiations. To obtain these models, we used the theory of the non-local continuum proposed by Eringen. The thermal damages to the tissues are assessed completely by the denatured protein ranges using the formulations of Arrhenius. Numerical results for temperature and the thermal damage are graphically presented. The effects nonlocal parameters and the relaxation time on the distributions of physical fields for biological tissues are shown graphically and discussed.

Key Words
bioheat transfer; laplace transform; living tissues; nonlocal thermoelastic model; thermal relaxation time

Address
(1) Ibrahim A. Abbas, Aboelnour Abdalla, Hussien Sapoor:
Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt;
(2) Ibrahim A. Abbas:
Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics Research Group (NAAM), Mathematics Department, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Abstract
In the recent years, the use of agricultural waste in green cement mortar and concrete production has attracted considerable attention because of potential saving in the large areas of landfills and potential enhancement on the performance of mortar. In this research, microparticles of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) obtained from a multistage thermal and mechanical treatment processes of raw POFA originating from palm oil mill was utilized as a pozzolanic material to produce high-performance cement mortar (HPCM). POFA was used as a partial replacement material to ordinary Portland cement (OPC) at replacement levels of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40% by volume. Sand with particle size smaller than 300 μm was used to enhance the performance of the HPCM. The HPCM mixes were tested for workability, compressive strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), porosity and absorption. The results portray that the incorporation of micro POFA in HPCMs led to a slight reduction in the compressive strength. At 40% replacement level, the compressive strength was 87.4 MPa at 28 days which is suitable for many high strength applications. Although adding POFA to the cement mixtures harmed the absorption and porosity, those properties were very low at 3.4% and 11.5% respectively at a 40% POFA replacement ratio and after 28 days of curing. The HPCM mixtures containing POFA exhibited greater increase in strength and UPV as well as greater reduction in absorption and porosity than the control OPC mortar from 7 to 28 days of curing age, as a result of the pozzolanic reaction of POFA. Micro POFA with finely graded sand resulted in a dense and high strength cement mortar due to the pozzolanic reaction and increased packing effect. Therefore, it is demonstrated that the POFA could be used with high replacement ratios as a pozzolanic material to produce HPCM.

Key Words
cement; high-performance cement mortar; mortar; palm oil fuel ash; POFA; sand

Address
(1) Salem Giuma Ibrahim Sagr, M.A. Megat Johari:
School of Civil Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia;
(2) Salem Giuma Ibrahim Sagr:
Higher Institute of Sciences and Technology, Soq Alkamis Msehel, Libya;
(3) M.J.A. Mijarsh:
Civil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Al-Merghab University, Al-Khums, Libya.

Abstract
This study aims to investigate the influence of scoria aggregate (SA) and silica fume (SF) as a replacement of conventional aggregate and ordinary Portland cement (OPC), respectively. Three types of concrete were prepared namely normal weight concrete (NWC) using limestone aggregate (LSA) and OPC (control specimen), lightweight concrete (LWC) using SA and OPC, and LWC using SA and partial SF (SLWC). The representative workability and compressive strength properties of the developed concrete were evaluated, and the results were correlated with non-destructive ultrasonic pulse velocity and Schmidt hammer tests. The LWC and SLWC yielded compressive strength of around 30 MPa and 33 MPa (i.e., 78-86% of control specimens), respectively. The findings indicate that scoria can be beneficially utilized in the development of structural lightweight concrete. Present renewable sources of aggregate will preserve the natural resources for next generation. The newly produced eco-friendly construction material is intended to break price barriers in all markets and draw attraction of incorporating scoria based light weight construction in Saudi Arabia and GCC countries. Findings of the SWOT analysis indicate that high logistics costs for distributing the aggregates across different regions in Saudi Arabia and clients' resistant to change are among the major obstacles to the commercialized production and utilization of lightweight concrete as green construction material. The findings further revealed that huge scoria deposits in Saudi Arabia, and the potential decrease in density self-weight of structural elements are the major drivers and enablers for promoting the adoption of lightweight concrete as alternative green construction material in the construction sector.

Key Words
eco-friendly concrete; lightweight concrete; renewable; Saudi scoria waste; silica fume; SWOT analysis

Address
Department of Civil & Construction Engineering, College of Engineering, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, 31451, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.


Abstract
This work shows the impregnation of scents using a graphene sponge (GS). This was functionalized by the modified Hummers method, pursuing to add different functional groups. It is proposed to achieve the release and seek to control it through electrical potential applied to the graphene sponge with essential oils. The graphene sponge was functionalized and steeped with two kinds of oil. The electrochemical study demonstrates the variation in the electrochemical behaviour of the functionalized graphene sponge without and impregnated with oil. The release of the oil and its aromatic scents was carried out by applying an electrical potential of 30 V, with a release rate of 1.86 mg/min. The heating of the sample that causes the release of oil, associated with the electrical resistance of the system, reaches temperatures of about 150 °C. The essential oils, graphene sponge, surfactant, graphene sponge with essential oils, graphene sponge recuperated after applying electric potential, graphene sponge recovered by temperature and dipropylene glycol (DPG) were characterized using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), digital microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Key Words
absorption; methylene blue; PMMA

Address
Department of Dental Technology, College of Health and Medical Technology, Middle Technical University, Baghdad 00964, Iraq.



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