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CONTENTS
Volume 63, Number 1, July10 2017
 

Abstract
Shot peening is a cold surface treatment employed to induce residual stress field in a metallic component beneficial for increasing its fatigue strength. The experimental investigation of parameters involved in shot peening process is very complex as well as costly. The most attractive alternative is the explicit dynamics finite element (FE) analysis capable of determining the shot peening process parameters subject to the selection of a proper material´s constitutive model and numerical technique. In this study, Ansys / LS-Dyna software was used to simulate the impact of steel shots of various sizes on an aluminium alloy plate described with strain rate dependent elasto-plastic material model. The impacts were carried out at various incident velocities. The influence of shot velocity and size on the plastic deformation, compressive residual stress and force-time response were investigated. The results exhibited that increasing the shot velocity and size resulted in an increase in plastic deformation of the aluminium target. However, a little effect of the shot velocity and size was observed on the magnitude of target´s subsurface compressive residual stress. The obtained results were close to the published ones, and the numerical models demonstrated the capability of the method to capture the pattern of residual stress and plastic deformation observed experimentally in aluminium alloys. The study can be quite helpful in determining and selecting the optimal shot peening parameters to achieve specific level of plastic deformation and compressive residual stress in the aluminium alloy parts especially compressor blades.

Key Words
shot peening; impact; finite element analysis; residual stress; plastic deformation

Address
Himayat Ullah, Baseer Ullah: Centre of Excellence in Applied Sciences and Technology (CESAT), Islamabad, Pakistan

Riaz Muhammad: Department of Mechanical Engineering, CECOS University of IT and Emerging Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan


Abstract
In this paper, the efficiency and the accuracy of classical (CE) and high order (HE) beam element are improved by introducing two novel techniques. The first proposed element (FPE) provides an alternative for (HE) by taking the mode shapes of the clamped-clamped (C-C) beam into account. The second proposed element (SPE) which could be utilized instead of (CE) and (HE) considers not only the mode shapes of the (C-C) beam but also some virtual nodes. It is numerically proven that the eigenvalue problem and the frequency response function for Euler-Bernoulli beam are obtained more accurate and efficient in contrast to the traditional ones.

Key Words
improved beam element; Clamped-Clamped beam mode shapes; virtual nodes; frequency response function

Address
Alireza A. Chekab: Civil Engineering Department, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Iran

Ahmad A. Sani: Civil Engineering Department, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran


Abstract
A nonlinear static procedure considering work-energy principle and global failure mechanism to estimate base shears of reinforced concrete (RC) frame-type structures is presented. The relative energy equation comprising of elastic vibrational energy, plastic strain energy and seismic input energy is obtained. The input energy is modified with a factor depending on damping ratio and ductility, and the energy that contributes to damage is obtained. The plastic energy is decreased with a factor to consider the reduced hysteretic behavior of RC members. Given the pre-selected failure mechanism, the modified energy balance equality is written using various approximations for modification factors of input energy and plastic energy in scientific literature. External work done by the design lateral forces distributed to story levels in accordance with Turkish Seismic Design Code is calculated considering the target plastic drift. Equating the plastic energy obtained from energy balance to external work done by the equivalent inertia forces considering, a total of 16 energy-based base shears for each frame are derived considering different combinations of modification factors. Ductility related parameters of modification factors are determined from pushover analysis. Relative input energy of multi degree of freedom (MDOF) system is approximated by using the modal-energy-decomposition approach. Energy-based design base shears are compared with those obtained from nonlinear time history (NLTH) analysis using recorded accelerograms. It is found that some of the energy-based base shears are in reasonable agreement with the mean base shear obtained from NLTH analysis.

Key Words
failure mechanism; structural damping; seismic input energy; hysteretic properties; modification factors; energy-based base shears

Address
Onur Merter: Department of Civil Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160, Buca, Izmir, Turkey

Taner Ucar: Department of Architecture, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160, Buca, Izmir, Turkey


Abstract
This paper is concerned with the numerical study on the resonance response of a rigid spar-type floating platform in coupled heave and pitch motion. Spar-type floating platforms, widely used for supporting the offshore structures, offer an economic advantage but those exhibit the dynamically high sensitivity to external excitations due to their shape at the same time. Hence, the investigation of their dynamic responses, particularly at resonance, is prerequisite for the design of spar-type floating platforms which secure the dynamic stability. Spar-type floating platform in 2-D surface wave is assumed to be a rigid body having 2-DOFs, and its coupled dynamic equations are analytically derived using the geometric and kinematic relations. The motion-variance of the metacentric height and the moment of inertia of floating platform are taken into consideration, and the hydrodynamic interaction between the wave and platform motions is reflected into the hydrodynamic force and moment and the frequency-dependent added masses. The coupled nonlinear equations governing the heave and pitch motions are solved by the RK4 method, and the frequency responses are obtained by the digital Fourier transform. Through the numerical experiments to the wave frequency, the resonance responses and the coupling in resonance between heave and pitch motions are investigated in time and frequency domains.

Key Words
spar-type floating platform; 2-D surface wave; heave and pitch motions; coupled nonlinear equations; coupling in resonance

Address
Eung-Young Choi: KFX Airframe Analysis Team, Korea Aerospace Industries, Sacheon 52529, Republic of Korea

Jin-Rae Cho: 2Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering, Hongik University, Sejong 339-701, Republic of Korea

Weui-Bong Jeong: School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The fundamental goal of this study is to minimize the uncertainty of the median fragility curve and to assess the structural vulnerability under earthquake excitation. Bayesian Inference with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation has been presented for efficient collapse response assessment of the independent intake water tower. The intake tower is significantly used as a diversion type of the hydropower station for maintaining power plant, reservoir and spillway tunnel. Therefore, the seismic fragility assessment of the intake tower is a pivotal component for estimating total system risk of the reservoir. In this investigation, an asymmetrical independent slender reinforced concrete structure is considered. The Bayesian Inference method provides the flexibility to integrate the prior information of collapse response data with the numerical analysis results. The preliminary information of risk data can be obtained from various sources like experiments, existing studies, and simplified linear dynamic analysis or nonlinear static analysis. The conventional lognormal model is used for plotting the fragility curve using the data from time history simulation and nonlinear static pushover analysis respectively. The Bayesian Inference approach is applied for integrating the data from both analyses with the help of MCMC simulation. The method achieves meaningful improvement of uncertainty associated with the fragility curve, and provides significant statistical and computational efficiency.

Key Words
bayesian inference; markov chain monte carlo simulation; seismic fragility; uncertainty; intake tower

Address
Jahangir Alam, Dookie Kim: Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University 558 Daehak-ro, Gunsan-si 54150, Republic of Korea

Byounghan Choi: Rural research Institute, 870, Haean-ro Sangnok-gu, Ansan-si Gyeonggi-do, 15634, Republic of Korea


Abstract
The paper concerns concrete carbonation, the phenomena that occurs in every type of climate, especially in urban-industrial areas. In European Standards, including Eurocode (EC) for concrete structures the demanded durability of construction located in the conditions of the carbonation threat is mainly assured by the selection of suitable thickness of reinforcement cover. According to EC0 and EC2, the thickness of the cover in the particular class of exposure depends on the structural class/category and concrete compressive strength class which is determined by cement content and water-cement ratio (thus the quantitative composition) but it is not differentiated for various cements, nor additives (i.e., qualitative composition), nor technological types of concrete. As a consequence the selected thickness of concrete cover is in fact a far estimation -sometimes too exaggerated (too safe or too risky). The paper presents the elaborated "self-terminated carbonation model" that includes abovementioned factors and enables to indicate the maximal possible depth of carbonation. This is possible because presented model is a hyperbolic function of carbonation depth in time (the other models published in the literature use the parabolic function that theoretically assume the infinite increase of carbonation depth value). The paper discusses the presented model in comparison to other models published in the literature, moreover it contains the algorithm of concrete cover design with use of the model as well as an example of calculation of the cover thickness.

Key Words
concrete; carbonation; self-terminated carbonation model; concrete cover design; durability

Address
Department of Building Materials Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Armii Ludowej 16, 00-637 Warsaw, Poland


Abstract
This research investigated the vibration frequency of sandwich plate made of piezoelectric fiber reinforced composite core (PFRC) and face sheets of piezomagnetic materials. The effective electroelastic constants for PFRC materials are obtained by the micromechanical approach. The resting medium of sandwich plate is modeled by Pasternak foundation including normal and shear modulus. Besides, sandwich plate is subjected to linearly varying normal stresses that change by load factor. The coupled equations of motion are derived using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and energy method. These equations are solved by differential quadrature method (DQM) for simply supported boundary condition. A detailed numerical study is carried out based on piezoelectricity theory to indicate the significant effect of load factor, volume fraction of fibers, modulus of elastic foundation, core-to-face sheet thickness ratio and composite materials on dimensionless frequency of sandwich plate. These findings can be used to aerospace, building and automotive industries.

Key Words
composites; fiber reinforced; numerical method; plate structures; dynamic analysis

Address
Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 6Km Ghotbravandi Blvd, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

Abstract
Correction Factor Method (CFM) is one of the earliest methods for simulating the actual behavior of structure according to construction sequences and practical implementation steps of the construction process which corrects the results of the conventional analysis just by the application of correction factors. The most important advantages of CFM are the simplicity and time-efficiency of the computations in estimating the final modified forces of the beams. However, considerable inaccuracy in evaluating the internal forces of the other structural members obtained by the moment equilibrium equation in the connection joints is the biggest disadvantage of the method. This paper proposes a novel method to eliminate the aforementioned defect of CFM by using the column shortening correction factors of the CFM to modify the axial stiffness of columns. In this method, the effects of construction sequences are considered by performing a single step analysis which is more time-efficient when compared to the staged analysis especially in tall buildings with higher number of elements. In order to validate the proposed method, three structures with different properties are chosen and their behaviors are investigated by application of all four methods of: conventional one-step analysis, sequential construction analysis (SCA), CFM, and currently proposed method.

Key Words
sequential construction analysis (SCA) or staged analysis; conventional one-step analysis; differential column shortening; correction factor method (CFM); modified CFM; construction sequence

Address
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan, Iran

Abstract
In this work, we present a theoretical framework to study the thermovisco-elastic responses of homogeneous, isotropic and perfectly conducting medium subjected to inclined load. Based on recently developed generalized thermoelasticity theory with fractional order strain, the two-dimensional governing equations are obtained in the context of generalized magneto-thermo-viscoelasticity theory without energy dissipation. The Kelvin-Voigt model of linear viscoelasticity is employed to describe the viscoelastic nature of the material. The resulting formulation of the field equations is solved analytically in the Laplace and Fourier transform domain. On the application of inclined load at the surface of half-space, the analytical expressions for the normal displacement, strain, temperature, normal stress and tangential stress are derived in the joint-transformed domain. To restore the fields in physical domain, an appropriate numerical algorithm is used for the inversion of the Laplace and Fourier transforms. Finally, we have demonstrated the effect of magnetic field, viscosity, mechanical relaxation time, fractional order parameter and time on the physical fields in graphical form for copper material. Some special cases have also been deduced from the present investigation.

Key Words
fractional order strain; GN-II model; magnetic field; viscosity; Laplace and Fourier transforms; inclined load

Address
Department of Mathematics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology, Hisar-125001, Haryana, India

Abstract
Free vibration analysis of plates is necessary for the field of structural engineering because of its wide applications in practical life. Free vibration of plates is largely dependent on its thickness, aspect ratios, and boundary conditions. Here we investigate the natural frequencies of simply supported tapered isotropic rectangular plates with internal cutouts using a nine node isoparametric element. The effect of rotary inertia on Eigenfrequencies was demonstrated by calculating with- and without rotary inertia. We found that rotary inertia has a significant effect on thick plates, while rotary inertia term can be ignored in thin plates. Based on comparison with literature data, we propose that the present formulation is capable of yielding highly accurate results. Internal cutouts at various positions in tapered rectangular simply supported plates were also studied. Novel data are also reported for skew taper plates.

Key Words
finite element method; FSDT; rectangular plate; taper; rotary inertia; free vibration

Address
Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah - 711103, West Bengal, India


Abstract
In this paper, a different technique to predict the effects of soil-structure interaction (SSI) on seismic response of building systems is investigated. The technique use a machine learning algorithm called Support Vector Regression (SVR) with technical and analytical results as input features. Normally, the effects of SSI on seismic response of existing building systems can be identified by different types of large data sets. Therefore, predicting and estimating the seismic response of building is a difficult task. It is possible to approximate a real valued function of the seismic response and make accurate investing choices regarding the design of building system and reduce the risk involved, by giving the right experimental and/or numerical data to a machine learning regression, such as SVR. The seismic response of both single-degree-of-freedom system and six-storey RC frame which can be represent of a broad range of existing structures, is estimated using proposed SVR model, while allowing flexibility of the soil-foundation system and SSI effects. The seismic response of both single-degree-of-freedom system and six-storey RC frame which can be represent of a broad range of existing structures, is estimated using proposed SVR model, while allowing flexibility of the soil-foundation system and SSI effects. The results show that the performance of the technique can be predicted by reducing the number of real data input features. Further, performance enhancement was achieved by optimizing the RBF kernel and SVR parameters through grid search.

Key Words
seismic response; soil-structure interaction; support vector regression; kernel function

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Kerman, Iran

Abstract
This study investigated the performance of a steel column standing on a reinforced concrete footing when it was subjected to collision of an eight-ton single unit truck. Finite element analyses of the structure with different connection schemes were performed using the finite element model of the truck, and the results showed that the behavior of the column subjected to the automobile impact depended largely on the column-footing connection detail. Various reinforcement schemes were investigated to mitigate the damage caused by the car impact. The probability of the model reinforced with a certain scheme to reach a given limit state was obtained by fragility analysis, and the effects of the combined reinforcement methods were investigated based on the equivalent fragility scheme. The analysis results showed that the reinforcement schemes such as increase of the pedestal area, decrease of the pedestal height, and the steel plate jacketing of the pedestal were effective in reducing the damage. As the speed of the automobile increased the contribution of the increase in the number of the anchor bolts and the dowel bars became more important to prevent crushing of the pedestal.

Key Words
vehicle impact; FE analysis; sensitivity analysis; fragility analysis

Address
Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 440-746, Republic of Korea



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