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Volume 24, Number 2, June10 2017

In this study, vibration analysis of fluid conveying microbeams under non-ideal boundary conditions (BCs) is performed. The objective of the present paper is to describe the effects of non-ideal BCs on linear vibrations of fluid conveying microbeams. Non-ideal BCs are modeled as a linear combination of ideal clamped and ideal simply supported boundary conditions by using the weighting factor (k). Non-ideal clamped and non-ideal simply supported beams are both considered to show the effects of BCs. Equations of motion of the beam under the effect of moving fluid are obtained by using Hamilton principle. Method of multiple scales which is one of the perturbation techniques is applied to the governing linear equation of motion. Approximate solutions of the linear equation are obtained and the effects of system parameters and non-ideal BCs on natural frequencies are presented. Results indicate that, natural frequencies of fluid conveying microbeam changed significantly by varying the weighting factor k. This change is more remarkable for clamped microbeams rather than simply supported ones.

Key Words
microsystems; vibration; non-ideal boundary conditions; perturbation methods

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Manisa Celal Bayar University, 45140 Yunusemre, Manisa, Turkey.

This paper deals with general equations of motion for free vibration analysis response of thick three-layer doubly curved sandwich panels (DCSP) under simply supported boundary conditions (BCs) using higher order shear deformation theory. In this model, the face sheets are orthotropic laminated composite that follow the first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) based on Rissners-Mindlin (RM) kinematics field. The core is made of orthotropic material and its in-plane transverse displacements are modeled using the third order of the Taylor's series extension. It provides the potentiality for considering both compressible and incompressible cores. To find these equations and boundary conditions, Hamilton's principle is used. Also, the effect of trapezoidal shape factor for cross-section of curved panel element (1 ± z/R) is considered. The natural frequency parameters of DCSP are obtained using Galerkin Method. Convergence studies are performed with the appropriate formulas in general form for three-layer sandwich plate, cylindrical and spherical shells (both deep and shallow). The influences of core stiffness, ratio of core to face sheets thickness and radii of curvatures are investigated. Finally, for the first time, an optimum range for the core to face sheet stiffness ratio by considering the existence of in-plane stress which significantly affects the natural frequencies of DCSP are presented.

Key Words
sandwich panel; natural frequency; doubly curved; compressible core; incompressible core

(1) M. Nasihatgozar:
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran;
(2) S.M.R. Khalili:
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran, Iran;
(3) S.M.R. Khalili:
Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technolog Delhi, New Delhi, 110016, India;
(4) K. Malekzadeh Fard:
Department of Structural Analysis and Simulation, Space Research Institute, Tehran, Iran.

Hybrid-fiber reinforced concrete (HFRC) may provide much higher tensile and flexural strengths, tensile ductility, and flexural toughness than normal concrete (NC). HFRC slab has outstanding advantages for use as a composite bridge potential deck slab owing to higher tensile strength, ductility and crack resistance. However, there is little information on shear connector associated with HFRC slabs. To investigate the mechanical behavior of the stud shear connectors embedded in HFRC slab, 14 push-out tests (five batches) in HFRC and NC were conducted. It was found that the stud shear connector embedded in HFRC had a better ductility, higher stiffness and a slightly larger shear bearing capacity than those in NC. The experimentally obtained ultimate resistances of the stud shear connectors were also compared against the equations provided by GB50017 2003, ACI 318-112011, AISC 2011, AASHTO LRFD 2010, PCI 2004, and EN 1994-1-1 (2004), and an empirical equation to predict the ultimate shear connector resistance considering the effect of the HFRC slabs was proposed and validated by the experimental data. Curve fitting was performed to find fitting parameters for all tested specimens and idealized load-slip models were obtained for the specimens with HFRC slabs.

Key Words
headed stud; push-out test; HFRC; shear bearing capacity; load-slip

(1) Yu-Liang He, Xu-Dong Wu, Zhi-Hai He:
College of Civil Engineering, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000, China;
(2) Yu-Liang He, Yi-Qiang Xiang, Yu-Hang Wang, Li-Si Liu:
College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China;
(3) Yi-Qiang Xiang:
Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Impact resistance and weight are important features for ballistic materials. Kevlar fibres are the most widely reinforcement for military and civil systems due to its excellent impact resistance and high strength-to-weight ratio. Kevlar fibres or spectra fiber composites are used for designing personal body armour to avoid perforation. In this study, the ballistic impact behaviour of Kevlar/filled epoxy matrix is investigated. Three different fillers, nanoclay, nanocalcite and nanocarbon, were used in order to increase the ballistic impact performance of Kevlar-epoxy composite at lower weight. The filler, nanoclay and nanocalcite, content employed was 1 wt.% and 2 of the epoxy resin–hardener mixture while the nanocarbon were dispersed into the epoxy system in a 0.5%, 1% and 2% ratio in weight relating to the epoxy matrix. Specimens were produced by a hand lay-up process. The results obtained from ballistic impact experiments were discussed in terms of damage and perforation. The experimental tests revealed a number of damage mechanisms for composite laminated plates. In the ballistic impact test, it was observed whether the target was perforated completely penetrated at the back or not. The presence of small amounts of nanoclay and nanocalcite dispersed into the epoxy system improved the impact properties of the Kevlar/epoxy composites. The laminates manufactured with epoxy resin filled by 1 wt.% of nanoclay and 2 wt% nanocalcite showed the best performance in terms of ballistic performance. The addition of nanocarbon reduced ballistic performance of Kevlar-epoxy composites when compared the results obtained for laminates with 0% nanoparticles concentration.

Key Words
ballistic impact performance; nanoclay; nanocalcite; nanocarbon; Kevlar; lightweight armour

(1) Yeliz Pekbey:
Ege University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir, Turkey;
(2) Kubilay Aslantaş, Nihal Yumak:
Afyon Kocatepe Faculty of Technology Department of Mechanical Engineering ANS Campus, Afyonkarahisar, Turkey.

This study evaluates the reliability of present European codes in predicting the collapse load of columns made with perforated cold-formed steel (CFS) profiles under combined axial load and bending. To this aim, a series of experimental tests on slender open-section specimens have been performed at varying load eccentricity. Preliminarily, stub column tests have also been performed to calculate the effective section properties of the investigated profile. By comparison of experimental data with code-specified M-N strength domains, the authors demonstrate that present code formulations may underestimate the collapse load of thin-walled perforated open sections. The study is the first step of a wider experimental and numerical study aimed at better describing strength domains of perforated CFS open sections.

Key Words
industrial pallet racks; cold-formed steel; experimental tests; M-N strength domain; Eurocode 3

(1) Maurizio Orlando, Paolo Spinelli:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Florence, Via di S. Marta 3, 50139 Florence, Italy;
(2) Giovanni Lavacchini:
Studio Giovanni Lavacchini, Via IV Novembre 46/3, 50032 Borgo San Lorenzo (FI), Italy;
(3) Barbara Ortolani:
Via dell'Arcolaio 52, 50137 Florence, Italy.

The behavior of building industry metal sheeting under shear forces has been extensively studied and equations have been developed to predict its shear stiffness. Building design engineers can make use of these equations to design a metal deck form bracing system. Bridge metal deck forms differ from building industry forms by both shape and connection detail. These two factors have implications for using these equations to predict the shear stiffness of deck form systems used in the bridge industry. The conventional eccentric connection of bridge metal deck forms reduces their shear stiffness dramatically. However, recent studies have shown that a simple modification to the connection detail can significantly increase the shear stiffness of bridge metal deck form panels. To the best of the author's knowledge currently there is not a design aid that can be used by bridge engineers to estimate the stiffness of bridge metal deck forms. Therefore, bridge engineers rely on previous test results to predict the stiffness of bridge metal deck forms in bracing applications. In an effort to provide a design aid for bridge design engineers to rely on bridge metal deck forms as a bracing source during construction, cantilever shear frame test results of bridge metal deck forms with and without edge stiffened panels have been compared with the SDI Diaphragm Design Manual and ECCS Diaphragm Stressed Skin Design Manual stiffness expressions used for building industry deck forms. The bridge metal deck form systems utilized in the tests consisted of sheets with thicknesses of 0.75 mm to 1.90 mm, heights of 50 mm to 75 mm and lengths of up to 2.7 m; which are representative of bridge metal deck forms frequently employed in steel bridge constructions. The results indicate that expressions provided in these manuals to predict the shear stiffness of building metal deck form panels can be used to estimate the shear stiffness of bridge metal deck form bracing systems with certain limitations. The SDI Diaphragm Design Manual expressions result in reasonable estimates for sheet thicknesses of 0.75 mm, 0.91 mm, and 1.21 mm and underestimate the shear stiffness of 1.52 and 1.90 mm thick bridge metal deck forms. Whereas, the ECCS Diaphragm Stressed Skin Design Manual expressions significantly underestimate the shear stiffness of bridge metal deck form systems for above mentioned deck thicknesses.

Key Words
metal deck sheet; shear stiffness; stability bracing; buckling; stiffness requirements

Department of Civil Engineering, Izmir University of Economics, Balcova, Izmir 35330, Turkey.

This paper presents optimization of a long-span portal steel frame under dynamic wind loads using a surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithm. Long-span portal steel frames are often used in low-rise industrial and commercial buildings. The structure needs be able to resist the wind loads, and at the same time it should be as light as possible in order to be cost-effective. In this work, numerical model of a portal steel frame is constructed using structural analysis program (SAP2000), with the web-heights at five locations of I-sections of the columns and rafters as the decision variables. In order to evaluate the performance of a given design under dynamic wind loading, the equivalent static wind load (ESWL) is obtained from a database of wind pressures measured in wind tunnel tests. A modified formulation of the problem compared to the one available in the literature is also presented, considering additional design constraints for practicality. Evolutionary algorithms (EA) are often used to solve such non-linear, black-box problems, but when each design evaluation is computationally expensive (e.g., in this case a SAP2000 simulation), the time taken for optimization using EAs becomes untenable. To overcome this challenge, we employ a surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithm (SAEA) to expedite the convergence towards the optimum design. The presented SAEA uses multiple spatially distributed surrogate models to approximate the simulations more accurately in lieu of commonly used single global surrogate models. Through rigorous numerical experiments, improvements in results and time savings obtained using SAEA over EA are demonstrated.

Key Words
structural optimization; steel portal frames; equivalent static wind loading; SAP2000; surrogate-assisted evolutionary algorithm

(1) Zhifang Zhang, Jingwen Pan, Jiyang Fu, Jiurong Wu, Rui Rao:
Guangzhou University-Tamkang University Joint Research Center for Engineering Structure Disaster Prevention and Control, Guangzhou University, Guangzhou 510006, P.R. China;
(2) Hemant Kumar Singh:
School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales, Canberra, Australia;
(3) Yong-Lin Pi:
Centre for Infrastructure Engineering Safety, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.

Friction dampers are displacement dependent energy dissipation devices which dissipate earthquake energy through friction mechanism and widely used in improving the seismic behavior of new structures and rehabilitation of existing structures. In this paper, the cyclic behavior of a friction damper with different friction materials is investigated through experimental tests under cyclic loading. The damper is made of steel plates, friction pads, preloaded bolts and hard washers. The paper aims at investigating the hysteretic behavior of three friction materials under cyclic loading to be utilized in friction damper. The tested friction materials are: powder lining, super lining and metal lining. The experimental results are studied according to FEMA-356 acceptance criteria and the most appropriate friction material is selected by comparing all friction materials results.

Key Words
passive energy dissipation system; friction damper; cyclic loading; hysteretic curve; brake lining

(1) Majid Anoushehei, Farhad Daneshjoo:
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran;
(2) Shima Mahboubi:
Department of Civil Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran;
(3) Sajjad Khazaeli:
Department of Mechanical Engineering, SAAB Steel Development Co., Qazvin, Iran.

In this paper free linear vibration of lattice composite conical shells will be investigated. Lattice composite conical shell consists of composite helical ribs and thin outer skin. A smeared method is employed to obtain the variable coefficients of stiffness of conical shell. The ribs are modeled as a beam and in addition to the axial loads, endure shear loads and bending moments. Therefore, theoretical formulations are based on first-order shear deformation theory of shell. For verification of the obtained results, comparison is made with those available in open literature. Also, using FEM software the 3D finite element model of composite lattice conical shell is built and analyzed. Comparing results of analytical and numerical analyses show a good agreement between them. Some special cases as variation of geometric parameters of lattice part, effect of the boundary conditions and influence of the circumferential wave numbers on the natural frequencies of the conical shell are studied. It is concluded, when mass and the geometrical ratio of the composite lattice conical shell do not change, increment the semi vertex angle of cone leads to increase the natural frequencies. Moreover for shell thicknesses greater than a specific value, the presence of the lattice structure has not significant effect on the natural frequencies. The obtained results have novelty and can be used for further and future researches.

Key Words
conical shell; lattice; composite; helical rib; smear method; shear deformation

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, P.O. Box 14115-177, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Structures are designed in such a way that they behave in a nonlinear manner when subject to strong ground motions. Energy concepts have been widely used to evaluate the structural performance for the last few decades. Energy based design can be expressed as the balance of energy input and the energy dissipation capacity of the structure. New research is needed for multi degree of freedom systems (MDOFs)-real structures- within the framework of the energy based design methodology. In this paper, energy parameters are evaluated for low-, medium- and high-rise steel special concentrically braced frames (SCBFs) in terms of total energy input and hysteretic energy. Nonlinear dynamic time history analyses are carried out to assess the variation of energy terms along the height of the frames. A seismic energy demand spectrum is developed and hysteretic energy distributions within the frames are presented.

Key Words
special concentrically braced frame; energy spectrum; energy demands; energy based design; energy dissipation

(1) Selçuk Doğru, Bora Akşar, Bülent Akbaş:
Department of Civil Engineering, Gebze Technical University, Kocaeli, Turkey;
(2) Jay Shen:
Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, USA.

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