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CONTENTS
Volume 23, Number 5, April10 2017
 

Abstract
The behaviour of steel frames is highly influenced by the beam-column connections. Traditionally, Steel frames were usually designed assuming that connections are ideally pinned or fully rigid. A semi-rigid connection, however, creates a balance between the two extreme approaches mentioned above. In this research, two full scales of Extended End Plate Connections (EEPCs) were tested. Mathematical and numerical models were used to analyse the connections, and close correlations were found between these models and the corresponding tested specimens, which confirmed the confidence in the experimental results. The experimental results obtained enrich the available test data about behaviour of EEPC. In addition, the purpose of studying EEPC experimentally is to compare the stiffness and moment-rotation curve of EEPCs with that of Cap Plate Connections (CPCs), which were tested in a previous work. CPCs have not been studied sufficiently in the literature. The results obtained show that the typical CPC reduces the connection stiffness and these results will make a valuable contribution to the available test data in the research area of CPC.

Key Words
extended end plate; cap plate; semi-rigid connection; experimental test; moment-rotation curve

Address
(1) Dia Eddin Nassani:
Department of Civil Engineering, Hasan Kalyoncu University, Havalimani yolu 27410, Gaziantep, Turkey;
(2) Abdul Hakim Chikho:
Faulty of Civil Engineering, Aleppo University, Aleppo, Syria;
(3) Alirıza Ílker Akgönen:
Department of Civil Engineering, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Kahramanmaras, Turkey.

Abstract
Numerical simulations are prevalently used to evaluate the seismic behaviour of structures. The accuracy of the simulation results depends directly on the accuracy of the modelling techniques employed to simulate the behaviour of individual structural members. An empirical modelling technique is employed in this paper to simulate the behaviour of column members under cyclic and seismic loading. Despite the common modelling techniques, this technique is capable of simulating two important aspects of the cyclic and seismic behaviour of columns simultaneously. The proposed fiber-based modelling technique captures explicitly the interaction between the bending moment and the axial force in columns, and the cyclic deterioration of the hysteretic behaviour of these members is implicitly taken into account. The fiber-based model is calibrated based on the cyclic behaviour of square hollow steel sections. The behaviour of several column archetypes is investigated under a dual cyclic loading protocol to develop a benchmark database before the calibration procedure. The dual loading protocol used in this study consists of both axial and lateral loading cycles with varying amplitudes. After the calibration procedure, a regression analysis is conducted to derive an equation for predicting a varying calibrated modelling parameter. Finally, several nonlinear time-history analyses are conducted on a 6-story steel special moment frame in order to investigate how the results of numerical simulations can be affected by employing the intended modelling technique for columns instead of other common modelling techniques.

Key Words
cyclic behaviour; distributed plasticity finite element; fiber-based finite-length plastic hinge model; column members; cyclic strength deterioration; axial force-bending moment interaction

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

Abstract
In this paper, the effect of active confinement on the compressive behaviour of circular steel tube-confined concrete (STCC) and concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns is investigated. In STCC columns the axial load is only applied to the concrete core, while in CFST columns the load is carried by the whole composite section. A new method introduced to apply confining pressure on fresh concrete by laterally prestressing steel tubes. In order to achieve different prestressing levels, shortterm and long-term pressures are applied to the fresh concrete. Three groups of STCC and CFST specimens (passive, S-active and L-active groups) are tested under axial loads. The results including stress-strain relationships of composite column components, secant modulus of elasticity, and volumetric strain are presented and discussed. Based on the elastic-plastic theory, the behaviour of the steel tube is also analyzed during elastic, yielding, and strain hardening stages. The results show that using the proposed prestressing method can considerably improve the compressive behaviour of both STCC and CFST specimens, while increasing the prestressing level has insignificant effects. By applying prestressing, the linear range in the stress-strain curve of STCC specimens increases by almost twice as much, while the improvement is negligible in CFST specimens.

Key Words
prestressing; stress-strain; elastic-plastic theory; confined concrete; steel tube; active confinement

Address
(1) Mahdi Nematzadeh, Saeed Fazli:
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, 47416-13534, Iran;
(2) Iman Hajirasouliha:
Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Abstract
In the present study, vibration analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite (FGCNTRC) plate moving in two directions is investigated. Various types of shear deformation theories are utilized to obtain more accurate and simplest theory. Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are selected as a reinforcement of composite face sheets inside Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix. Moreover, different kinds of distributions of CNTs are considered. Based on extended rule of mixture, the structural properties of composite face sheets are considered. Motion equations are obtained by Hamilton's principle and solved analytically. Influences of various parameters such as moving speed in x and y directions, volume fraction and distribution of CNTs, orthotropic viscoelastic surrounding medium, thickness and aspect ratio of composite plate on the vibration characteristics of moving system are discussed in details. The results indicated that thenatural frequency or stability of FGCNTRC plate is strongly dependent on axially moving speed. Moreover, a better configuration of the nanotube embedded in plate can be used to increase the critical speed, as a result, the stability is improved. The results of this investigation can be used in design and manufacturing of marine vessels and aircrafts.

Key Words
vibration\\vibration analysis; plate; fiber reinforced polymers (FRP); sandwich composite; composite structures

Address
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran.

Abstract
The mechanical properties of steel fiber reinforced high strength concrete (SFRHSC) made with binary and ternary blends of metakaolin (MK) and ground pumice (GP) are investigated in this study. The investigated properties are ultrasonic pulse velocity (Upv, compressive strength (fc), flexural strength (ff) and splitting tensile strength (fst) of SFRHSC. A total of 16 steel fiber reinforced concrete mixtures were produced by a total binder content of 500 kg/m3 for determining the effects of MK and GP on the mechanical properties. The design fc was acquired from 70 to 100 MPa by using a low water-binder ratio of 0.2. The test results exhibit that high strength concrete can be obtained by replacing the cement with MK and GP. Besides, correlations between these results are executed for comprehending the relationship between mechanical properties of SFRHSC and the strong correlations are observed between these properties. Moreover, two models in the gene expression programming (GEP) for predicting the fc of SFRHSC made with binary and ternary blends of MK and GP have been developed. The results obtained from these models are compared with the experimental results. These comparisons proved that the results of equations obtained from these models seem to agree with the experimental results.

Key Words
steel fiber; metakaolin; ground pumice; strength properties; high strength concrete

Address
Department of Civil Engineering, Ömer Halisdemir University, 51240 Niğde, Turkey.

Abstract
In this study, the seismic performance levels of four bridges are determined using finite element modeling based on ambient vibration testing. The study includes finite element modeling, analytical modal analyses, ambient vibration testing and earthquake analyses of the bridges. For the purpose, four prestressed precast I beam bridges that were constructed for the Ankara-Sivas high speed railway line are selected for analytical and experimental studies. In the study, firstly a literature review related to the dynamic behavior of bridges especially precast beam bridges is given and then the formulation part related to ambient vibration testing and structural performance according to Turkish Seismic Code (2007) is presented. Next, 3D finite element models of the bridge are described and modeled using LARSA 4D software, and analytical dynamic characteristics are obtained. Then ambient vibration testing conducted on the bridges under natural excitations and experimental natural frequencies are estimated. Lastly, time history analyses of the bridges under the 1999 Kocaeli, 1992 Erzincan, and 1999 Düzce Earthquakes are performed and seismic performance levels according to TSC2007 are determined. The results show that the damage on the bridges is all under the minimum damage limit which is in the minimum damage region under all three earthquakes.

Key Words
ambient vibration testing; dynamic characteristic; finite element modeling; precast I beam bridge; seismic performance level

Address
(1) Burak Toydemir:
Ístanbul Gelişim University, Gelişim Vocational Schoo, Ístanbul, Turkey;
(2) Ali Kocçk, Barış Sevim, Basak Zengin:
Yıldız Technical University, Department of Civil Engineering, 34220, Ístanbul, Turkey.

Abstract
A kind of accordion-web RBS connection, "Tubular Web RBS (TW-RBS)" connection is proposed in this research. TW-RBS is made by replacing a part of web with a tube at the desirable location of the beam plastic hinge. This paper presents first a numerical study under cyclic load using ABAQUS finite element software. A test specimen is used for calibration and comparison of numerical results. Obtained results indicated that TW-RBS would reduce contribution of the beam web to the whole moment strength and creates a ductile fuse far from components of the beam-to-column connection. Besides, TW-RBS connection can increase story drift capacity up to 9% in the case of shallow beams which is much more than those stipulated by the current seismic codes. Furthermore, the tubular web like corrugated sheet can improve both the out-of-plane stiffness of the beam longitudinal axis and the flange stability condition due to the smaller width to thickness ratio of the beam flange in the plastic hinge region. Thus, the tubular web in the plastic hinge region improves lateral-torsional buckling stability of the beam as just local buckling of the beam flange at the center of the reduced section was observed during the tests. Also change of direction of strain in arc shape of the tubular web section is smaller than the accordion webs with sharp corners therefore the tubular web provides a better condition in terms of low-cycle fatigue than other accordion web with sharp corners.

Key Words
cyclic behavior; moment resisting steel frames; rigid connection; reduced beam section; Tubular Web RBS (TW-RBS)

Address
(1) Seyed M. Zahrai, Seyed R. Mirghaderi:
School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, The University of Tehran, Iran;
(2) Aboozar Saleh:
Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University Professor Hesabi branch, Tafresh, Iran.

Abstract
Tubular joints have been widely used in offshore platforms and space structures due to their merits such as easy fabrication, aesthetic appearance and better static strength. For existing tubular joints, a grouted sleeve reinforced method was proposed in this paper. Experimental tests on five tubular T-joints reinforced with the grouted sleeve and two conventional tubular T-joints were conducted to investigate their mechanical behaviour. A constant axial compressive force was applied to the chord end to simulate the compressive state of the chord member during the tests. Then an axial compressive force was applied to the top end of the brace member until the collapse of the joint specimens occurred. The parameters investigated herein were the grout thickness, the sleeve length coefficient and the sleeve construction method. The failure mode, ultimate load, initial stiffness and deformability of these joint specimens were discussed. It was found that: (1) The grouted sleeve could change the failure mode of tubular T-joints. (2) The grouted sleeve was observed to provide strength enhancement up to 154.3%~172.7% for the corresponding un-reinforced joint. (3) The initial stiffness and deformability were also greatly improved by the grouted sleeve. (4) The sleeve length coefficient was a key parameter for the improved effect of the grouted sleeve reinforced method.

Key Words
connections; failure mode; steel-concrete composite

Address
(1) Shouchao Jiang, Xiaonong Guo, Shaojun Zhu:
Department of Building Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China;
(2) Zhe Xiong:
School of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006, China;
(3) Yufang Cai:
Xuhui Shanghai Land Reserve Co., Ltd., Shanghai 200030, China.

Abstract
This paper presents a mathematical model for fixed-end moments of I-sections with straight haunches for the general case (symmetrical and/or non-symmetrical) subjected to a concentrated load localized anywhere on beam taking into account the bending deformations and shear, which is the novelty of this research. The properties of the cross section of the beam vary along its axis "x", i.e., the flange width "b", the flange thickness "t", the web thickness " e are constant and the height "d"v aries along of the beam, this variation is linear type. The compatibility equations and equilibrium are used to solve such problems, and the deformations anywhere of beam are found by the virtual work principle through exact integrations using the software "Derive" to obtain some results. The traditional model takes into account only bending deformations, and others authors present tables considering the bending deformations and shear, but are restricted. A comparison between the traditional model and the proposed model is made to observe differences, and an example of structural analysis of a continuous highway bridge under live load is resolved. Besides the effectiveness and accuracy of the developed models, a significant advantage is that fixed-end moments are calculated for any cross section of the beam "I" using the mathematical formulas.

Key Words
fixed-end moments; beams of I-sections; concentrated load; straight haunches; bending deformations and shear

Address
Faculty of Engineering, Science and Architecture, Juárez University of Durango State, Av. Universidad S/N, Fracc. Filadelfia, CP 35010, Gómez Palacio, Durango, México.

Abstract
This paper presents an investigation on the fire resistance of high strength fiber reinforced concrete filled box columns (CFBCs) under combined temperature and loading. Two groups of full-size specimens were fabricated. The control group was a steel box filled with high-strength concrete (HSC), while the experimental group consisted of a steel box filled with high strength fiber concrete (HFC) and two steel boxes filled with fiber reinforced concrete. Prior to fire test, a constant compressive load (i.e., load level for fire design) was applied to the column specimens. Thermal load was then applied on the column specimens in form of ISO 834 standard fire curve in a large-scale laboratory furnace until the set experiment termination condition was reached. The test results show that filling fiber concrete can improve the fire resistance of CFBC. Moreover, the configuration of longitudinal reinforcements and transverse stirrups can significantly improve the fire resistance of CFBCs.

Key Words
fire resistance; high strength fiber concrete; concrete filled box columns

Address
Department of Civil Engineering & Geomatics, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Rd., Niaosong District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan R.O.C.


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