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Volume 10, Number 3, June 2010

Fire incident in buildings is common, so the fire safety design of the framed structure is imperative, especially for the unprotected or partly protected bare steel frames. However, software for structural fire analysis is not widely available. As a result, the performance-based structural fire design is urged on the basis of using user-friendly and conventional nonlinear computer analysis programs so that engineers do not need to acquire new structural analysis software for structural fire analysis and design. The tool is desired to have the capacity of simulating the different fire scenarios and associated detrimental effects efficiently, which includes second-order P-D and P-d effects and material yielding. Also the nonlinear behaviour of large-scale structure becomes complicated when under fire, and thus its simulation relies on an efficient and effective numerical analysis to cope with intricate nonlinear effects due to fire. To this end, the present fire study utilizes a second-order elastic/plastic analysis software NIDA to predict structural behaviour of bare steel framed structures at elevated temperatures. This fire study considers thermal expansion and material degradation due to heating. Degradation of material strength with increasing temperature is included by a set of temperature-stress-strain curves according to BS5950 Part 8 mainly, which implicitly allows for creep deformation. This finite element stiffness formulation of beam-column elements is derived from the fifth-order PEP element which facilitates the computer modeling by one member per element. The Newton-Raphson method is used in the nonlinear solution procedure in order to trace the nonlinear equilibrium path at specified elevated temperatures. Several numerical and experimental verifications of framed structures are presented and compared against solutions in literature. The proposed method permits engineers to adopt the performance-based structural fire analysis and design using typical second-order nonlinear structural analysis software.

Key Words
fire analysis; finite element method; steel structures; nonlinear analysis

Charterwealth Professional Ltd., Hong Kong
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong
The University of Queensland, Australia

This paper reports recent developments concerning the application of Generalised Beam Theory (GBT) to the structural analysis of steel-concrete composite bridges. The potential of GBT-based semi-analytical or finite element-based analyses in this field is illustrated/demonstrated by showing that both accurate and computationally efficient solutions may be achieved for a wide range of structural problems, namely those associated with the bridge (i) linear (first-order) static, (ii) vibration and (iii) lateral-torsional-distortional buckling behaviours. Several illustrative examples are presented, which concern bridges with two distinct cross-sections: (i) twin box girder and (ii) twin I-girder. Allowance is also made for the presence of discrete box diaphragms and both shear lag and shear connection flexibility effects.

Key Words
steel-concrete composite bridges; generalised beam theory (GBT); cross-section deformation; thin-walled structures.

UNIC, Departamento de Engenharia Civil, Faculdade de Cincias e Tecnologia,
Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
ICIST/IST, Departamento de Engenharia Civil e Arquitectura, Universidade Tcnica de Lisboa,
Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal

In this paper, experimental and theoretical investigations on the response and collapse of 310 stainless steel tubes with different diameter-to-thickness ratios subjected to cyclic bending are discussed. The tube-bending device and curvature-ovalization measurement apparatus were used to conduct the experiment. The endochronic theory combined with the principle of virtual work and finite element software, ANSYS, were used to simulate the moment-curvature and ovalization-curvature relationships. It is shown that although the two methods lead to good simulation of the moment-curvature relationship, the endochronic theory combined with the principle of virtual work has the better simulation of the ovalization-curvature response when compared with experimental data and the simulation by ANSYS. In addition, the theoretical formulations proposed by Kyriakides and Shaw (1987) and Lee et al. (2001) were used to simulate the controlled curvature

Key Words
310 stainless steel tubes; buckling failure, diameter-to-thickness ratio; cyclic bending.

Department of Mold and Die Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences Kaohsiung, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Department of Computer Application Engineering, Far East University, Tainan County, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Department of Engineering Science, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Generally, a box tube, which is used for an existing square CFT structure, is made by welding four plates. The manufacturing efficiency of this steel tube is poor, and it also needs special welding technology to weld its internal diaphragm and the through diaphragm. Therefore, an interior-anchor-type square steel tube was developed using the method of cold-forming thin plates to prevent welding of the stress concentration position, and to maximize the section efficiency. And, considering of the flow of beam flange load, the efficiency of erection and the weldability of the diaphragm to thin walled steel column, the external diaphragm connection was selected as the suitable type for the welded built-up square CFT column to beam connection. And, an analytical study and tests were conducted to evaluate the structural performance of the suggested connection details and to verify the suggested equations for the connection details. Through this study, the composite effect of the internal anchor to concrete, the resistance and stress distribution of the connections before and after the existing column is welded to the beam, the effective location of welding in connection were analyzed.

Key Words
welded built-up square CFT column; external diaphragm; weld throat thickness; inner anchor.

Total Structural Engineering and Construction Ltd (TSEC), Sungsudong 2-ga 289-12, Sungdong-gu, Seoul, 133-120, Korea
Department of Architectural Engineering, Dongshin University, Daeho-dong 252, Naju, Chunnam, 520-714, Korea
School of Architectural Engineering, University of Seoul, Cheonnong-dong 90, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul,130-743,

An experimental and a non linear finite element investigation on the behavior of steel-concrete composite beams stiffened in hogging moment region with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) sheets is presented in this paper. A total of five specimens were tested under two-point loads. Three of the composite beams included concrete slab while the other two beams had composite slabs. The stiffening was achieved by attaching CFRP sheets to the concrete surface at the position of negative bending moment. The suggested CFRP sheets arrangement enhanced the overall beam behavior and increased the composite beam capacity. Valuable parametric study was conducted using a three dimensional finite element model using ANSYS program. Both geometrical and material nonlinearity were included. The studied parameters included CFRP sheet arrangement, concrete strength and degree of shear connection.

Key Words
composite beams; CFRP; hogging moment; strengthening.

Department of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University,
P.O. Box 44519 Zagazig, Egypt

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