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CONTENTS
Volume 13, Number 3, May 2022
 


Abstract
In this research, bentonite was intercalated with CMC and then two different percentages of glutaraldehyde (5 & 10%) were added as a crosslink agent to achieve non water-soluble composites. Then the composites were coated on clay-based microfiltration membranes which were synthesized in the previous work of the authors. The XRD technique was used to track the intercalation mechanism and FTIR was used to study the crosslink procedure. SEM was used to study the microstructure and morphology of the coated samples and then the ability of non-coated and coated samples for removal of Cr3+ ions was studied and compared. It was seen that the samples coated with the synthesized composite including 10% of glutaraldehyde showed the best results and removed 99.7% of Cr3+ ions from water polluted with 5 ppm of Cr3+ ions.

Key Words
adsorptive membrane; clay-polymer composite; heavy metals; low cost; water treatment

Address
Fatemeh KashaniNia, Hamid Reza Rezaie and Hossein Sarpoolaky: Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Iran University of Science and Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
A tremendous amount of energy resources is being wasted in cleaning wastewater to save the environment across the globe. Several different procedures are commercially available to process wastewater. In this work, membrane filtration technique is used to treat the textile wastewater because of its cost effectiveness and low environmental impacts. Mixed Matrix Membrane (MMM) consist of Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) in which Graphene Oxide (GO) was added as a filler material. Five different membranes by varying the quantity of GO were prepared. The prepared membrane has been characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Water Contact Angle (WCA). The prepared membranes have been utilized to treat textile wastewater. The synthesized membranes are used for the elimination of total dissolve solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), Methylene blue (MB) dye and copper metallic ions from textile wastewater. It is concluded that amount of GO has direct correlation with the quality of wastewater treatment. The maximum removal of TDS, TSS, MB and copper ions are found to be 7.42, 23.73, 50.53 and 64.5% respectively and are achieved by 0.02 wt% PVA-GO membrane.

Key Words
graphene oxide; hydrophilicity; PVA membrane; textile; water treatment

Address
Awan Zahoor:Department of Food Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan/ Department of Polymer and Petrochemical Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

Asad A. Naqvi: Department of Mechanical Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

Faaz A. Butt: Department of Materials Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

Ghazanfar R. Zaidi: Department of Chemical Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan

Muhammad Younus: Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar, Pakistan


Abstract
In this study, the removal of Ciprofloxacin (CPX) from aqueous solutions was investigated by a new activated carbon adsorbent prepared from orange peel (ACOP) with chemical activation using ZnCl2. The physicochemical properties of orange peel activated carbon were characterized by proximate and ultimate analysis, scanning electron microscopy, BET surface area determination and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopic studies. According to Brunauer–Emmett–Teller isotherm and non-local-density functional theory, the cumulative surface area, pore volume and pore size of ACOP were determined as 1193 m2 g-1, 0.83 cc g-1 and 12.7 Å, respectively. The effects of contact time, pH, temperature and ACOP dose on the batch adsorption of CPX were studied. Adsorption equilibrium data of CPX with ACOP were found to be compatible with both the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. CPX adsorption capacity of ACOP was calculated as 181.8 mg g-1 using Langmuir isotherm. The CPX adsorption kinetics were found to be harmonious with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Conclusively, ACOP can be assessable as an effective adsorbent for the removal of ciprofloxacin (CPX) from aqueous solutions.

Key Words
activated carbon; aqueous solution; ciprofloxacin; orange peel; removal

Address
Rabia Köklü: Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Environmental Engineering Department, 54050 Sakarya, Turkey

Mustafa İmamoğlu: Sakarya University, Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Chemistry Department, 54050 Sakarya, Turkey

Abstract
Development in advanced separation processes leads to the significant advancement in polymeric membrane preparation methodology. Therefore, present research investigated the preparation and characterization of cellulose acetate membrane by phase inversion separation method to determine optimized operating parameters. Prepared CA membrane's performance was been analyzed in terms of % rejection and flux. Investigation was conducted to study effect of different parameters such as polymer concentration, evaporation rate, thickness of film, coagulation bath properties, temperature of polymer solution and of the coagulation bath etc. CA membrane was fabricated by taking polymer concentration 10wt% and 11wt% with zero second evaporation time and varying film thickness over non-woven polyester fabric. Effect of coagulation bath temperature (CBT) and casting solution temperature were also been studied. The experimental results from SEM showed that the surface morphology had been changed with polymer r concentration, coagulation bath and casting solution temperature, etc. Lower polymer concentration leads to lower precipitation time giving porous membrane. The prepared membrane was tested for advanced waste water treatment of relevant effluent stream in pilot plant to study flux and rejection behavior of the membrane.

Key Words
cellulose acetate; flux; nanofiltration; membrane; polymers; rejection; thin film composite; transport

Address
Heena N Katariya: Department of Chemical Engineering, S. S Agrawal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Navasri- 396445 Gujarat, India

Tejal M Patel: Department of Chemical Engineering, G H Patel College of Engineering & Technology, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388 120, Gujarat, India

Abstract
Liquid–liquid membrane contactor (LLMC), a device that exchanges dissolved gas molecules between the two sides of a hydrophobic membrane through membrane pores, can be employed to extract ammoniacal nitrogen from a feed solution, which is transported across the membrane and accumulated in a stripping solution. This LLMC process offers the promise of improving the sustainability of the global nitrogen cycle by cost-effectively recovering ammonia from wastewater. Despite recent technological advances in LLMC processes, a comprehensive review of their feasibility for ammonia recovery is rarely found in the literature. Our paper aims to close this knowledge gap, and in addition to analyze the challenges and provide potential solutions for improvement. We begin with discussions on the operational principles of the LLMC process for ammonia recovery and membrane types and membrane configurations commonly used in the process. We then assess the performance of the process by reviewing publications that demonstrate its practical application. Challenges involved in the implementation of the LLMC process, such as membrane fouling, membrane wetting, and chemical requirements, are presented, along with discussions on potential strategies to address each. These strategies, including membrane modification, hybrid process design, and process optimization based on cost–benefit analysis, guide the reader to identify key areas of future research and development.

Key Words
ammonia recovery; ammonia removal; liquid–liquid membrane contactor; wastewater treatment

Address
Yoonmi Jang, Wooram Lee and Jaebeom Park: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea

Yongju Choi: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea/ Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea


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