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CONTENTS
Volume 13, Number 4, October 2017
 

Abstract
There are only few cases where cause and location of failure of a rock structure are limited to a single discontinuity. Usually several discontinuities of limited size interact and eventually form a combined shear plane where failure takes place. So, besides the discontinuities, the regions between adjacent discontinuities, which consist of strong rock and are called material or rock bridges, are of utmost importance for the shear strength of the compound failure plane. Shear behaviour of persistent and non-persistent joint are different from each other. Shear strength of rock mass containing non-persistent joints is highly affected by mechanical behavior and geometrical configuration of non-persistent joints located in a rock mass. Therefore investigation is essential to study the fundamental failures occurring in a rock bridge, for assessing anticipated and actual performances of the structures built on or in rock masses. The purpose of this review paper is to present techniques, progresses and the likely future development directions in experimental testing of non-persistent joint failure behaviour. Experimental results showed that the presence of rock bridges in not fully persistent natural discontinuity sets is a significant factor affecting the stability of rock structures. Compared with intact rocks, jointed rock masses are usually weaker, more deformable and highly anisotropic, depending upon the mechanical properties of each joint and the explicit joint positions. The joint spacing, joint persistency, number of rock joint, angle of rock joint, length of rock bridge, angle of rock bridge, normal load, scale effect and material mixture have important effect on the failure mechanism of a rock bridge.

Key Words
non-persistent joint; rock bridge; shear mechanism; experimental test

Address
Alireza Bagher Shemirani: Department of Civil Engineering, Sadra Institute of Higher Education, Tehran, Iran
Hadi Haeri: Young Researchers and Elite Club, Bafgh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bafgh, Iran
Vahab Sarfarazi: Department of Mining Engineering, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan, Iran
Ahmadreza Hedayat: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401, U.S.A.

Abstract
Slope mass rating (SMR) is commonly used for the geomechanical classification of rock masses in an attempt to evaluate the stability of slopes. SMR is calculated from the RMR89-basic (basic rock mass rating) and from the characteristic features of discontinuities, and may be applied to slope stability analysis as well as to slope support recommendations. This study attempts to utilize the SMR classification system for slope stability analysis and to investigate the engineering geological conditions of the slopes and the slope stability analysis of the Gas Flare site in phases 6, 7 and 8 of the South Pars Gas Complex in Assalouyeh, south of Iran. After studying a total of twelve slopes, the results of the SMR classification system indicated that three slope failure modes, namely, wedge, plane and mass failure were possible along the slopes. In addition, the stability analyses conducted by a number of computer programs indicated that three of the slopes were stable, three of the slopes were unstable and the remaining six slopes were categorized as \'needs attention\' classes.

Key Words
geomechanics; slope mass rating (SMR); rock mass rating (RMR); Assalouyeh

Address
Mohammad Azarafza: Department of Geology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
Haluk Akgün: Department of Geological Engineering, Geotechnology Unit, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
Ebrahim Asghari-Kaljahi: Department of Earth Sciences, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran

Abstract
This study deals with simple solutions for a spherical or circular opening excavated in elastic-brittle plastic rock mass compatible with a linear Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) or a nonlinear Hoek-Brown (H-B) yield criterion. Based on total strain approach, the closed-form solutions of stresses and displacement are derived simultaneously for circular and spherical openings using original H-B and M-C yield criteria. Two simple numerical procedures are proposed for the solution of generalized H-B and M-C yield criteria. Based on incremental approach, the similarity solution is derived for circular and spherical openings using generalized H-B and M-C yield criteria. The classical Runge-Kutta method is used to integrate the first-order ordinary differential equations. Using three data sets for M-C and H-B models, the results of the radial displacements, the spreading of the plastic radius with decreasing pressure, and the radial and circumferential stresses in the plastic region are compared. Excellent agreement among the solutions is obtained for all cases of spherical and circular openings. The importance of the use of proper initial values in the similarity solution is discussed.

Key Words
rock; opening; total strain approach; incremental approach; similarity solution; elastic-brittle plastic rock; Hoek-Brown yield criterion

Address
Kyungho Park: Department of Civil Engineering, A\' Sharqiyah University, Oman

Abstract
Cantilever retaining wall movements generally depend on the intensity and duration of ground motion, the response of the soil underlying the wall, the response of the backfill, the structural rigidity, and soil-structure interaction (SSI). This paper investigates the effect of material properties on seismic response of backfill-cantilever retaining wall-soil/foundation interaction system considering SSI. The material properties varied include the modulus of elasticity, Poisson\'s ratio, and mass density of the wall material. A series of nonlinear time history analyses with variation of material properties of the cantilever retaining wall are carried out by using the suggested finite element model (FEM). The backfill and foundation soil are modelled as an elastoplastic medium obeying the Drucker-Prager yield criterion, and the backfill-wall interface behavior is taken into consideration by using interface elements between the wall and soil to allow for de-bonding. The viscous boundary model is used in three dimensions to consider radiational effect of the seismic waves through the soil medium. In the seismic analyses, North-South component of the ground motion recorded during August 17, 1999 Kocaeli Earthquake in Yarimca station is used. Dynamic equations of motions are solved by using Newmark\'s direct step-by-step integration method. The response quantities incorporate the lateral displacements of the wall relative to the moving base and the stresses in the wall in all directions. The results show that while the modulus of elasticity has a considerable effect on seismic behavior of cantilever retaining wall, the Poisson\'s ratio and mass density of the wall material have negligible effects on seismic response.

Key Words
modulus of elasticity; Poisson\'s ratio; mass density; cantilever retaining wall; SSI

Address
Tufan Cakir: Department of Civil Engineering, Gümüşhane University, 29100 Gümüşhane, Turkey

Abstract
The double-row long-short composite anti-sliding piles system is an effective way to control the landslides with high thrust. In this study, The double-row long-short composite anti-sliding piles with different load segment length (cantilever length) and different pile row spacing were studied by a series of physical tests, by which the influences of load segment length of rear-row piles as well as pile row spacing on the mechanical response of double-row long-short composite anti-sliding pile system were investigated. Based on the earth pressures in front of and behind the piles obtained during tests, then the maximum bending moments of the fore-row and the rear-row piles were calculated. By ensuring a equal maximum moments in the fore-row and the rear-row piles, the optimum lengths of the rear-row piles of double-row long-short composite system under different piles spacing were proposed. To investigate the validity of the reduced scale tests, the full-scale numerical models of the landside were finally conducted. By the comparisons between the numerical and the physical test results, it could be seen that the reduced scale tests conducted in this study are reliable. The results showed that the double-row long-short composite anti-sliding piles system is effective in the distribution of the landslide thrust to the rear-row and the fore-row piles.

Key Words
anti-sliding pile; double-row long-short composite system; load segment length; pile row spacing; earth pressures

Address
Yongjiang Shen, Zhengliang Xiang and Ming Yang: Institute of Disaster Prevention Science and Safety Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410075, China
Zhijun Wu: 1.) The Key Laboratory of Safety for Geotechnical and Structural Engineering of Hubei Province,
School of Civil Engineering, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072, China
2.) State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China




Abstract
Ground improvement with use of geosynthetic products is globally accepted now. The present paper discusses the improvement in bearing capacity of square footing placed at surface of cohesionless soil reinforced with geocell. Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion has been used in the observations. To study effects of geocell with respect to planar geogrid, model tests were conducted on planar reinforcement also. A comparative study of unreinforced soil and soil reinforced with plane geogrid and geocell has also been made. Numerical analysis results obtained by PLaxis have been compared with those obtained from model tests and were found to be in good agreement. A parametric study revealed the role of length of reinforcement, spacing between layers, placement of reinforcement from top surface etc. on bearing capacity. A design example given in paper illustrates the savings in cost of construction of footing on reinforced sand. The study shows that there is improvement in bearing capacity with respect to unreinforced soil which is of the order of 86%. Similarly settlement reduction is 13.07% for single layer of geocell which for double layers of geocell is 693% and 86.48% respectively. The cost reduction in case of reinforced soil is 35% as compared to unreinforced soil.

Key Words
settlement reduction; geocell; cohesionless soil; bearing capacity improvement; economical design

Address
Sefali Biswas and Satyendra Mittal: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667, India

Abstract
By increase in the population and consequently constructions, new structures may be built in vicinity of the soil slopes. Such structures can be regarded as an extra surcharge on the slopes. The intensity and location of the surcharge affects the displacements of the slopes. Few researchers have studied the effect of surcharge on displacements of soil slopes. In this research, using limit analysis method and upper bound theory with non-associated flow rule, displacements of soil slopes in vicinity of a surcharge has been estimated. The authors have improved the technique previously proposed by them and a new formulation is suggested for calculating the permanent displacements of the soil slope in presence of a surcharge for two failure modes, rotational and transitional. A comparison has also been made between the two mentioned modes for various conditions of surcharge and slope. The conditions resulting in the rotational mode to be more critical than the transitional mode have been investigated. Also, the effects of surcharge\'s intensity, location of surcharge as well as the soil properties have been investigated.

Key Words
surcharge; soil slopes; displacement; limit analysis

Address
Mohammad Mahdi Aminpour and Mohammad Maleki: Department of Civil Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan, I.R. Iran
Ali Ghanbari: Faculty of Engineering, Kharazmi University, No. 49 Mofatteh Ave. Tehran, I.R. Iran

Abstract
Groundwater control is a significant issue in most underground construction. An estimate of the inflow rate is required to size the pumping system, and treatment plant facilities for construction planning and cost assessment. An estimate of the excavation-induced drawdown of the initial groundwater level is required to evaluate potential environmental impacts. Analytical and empirical methods used in current engineering practice do not adequately account for the effect of the jointed-rock-mass anisotropy and heterogeneity. The impact of geo-structural anisotropy of fractured rocks on tunnel inflows is addressed and the limitations of analytical solutions assuming isotropic hydraulic conductivity are discussed. In this paper the unexcavated Zagros tunnel route has been classified from groundwater flow point of view based on the combination of observed water inflow and numerical modeling results. Results show that, in this hard rock tunnel, flow usually concentrates in some areas, and much of the tunnel is dry. So the remaining unexcavated Zagros tunnel route has been categorized into three categories including high Risk, moderately risk and low risk. Results show that around 60 m of tunnel (3%) length can conduit the large amount of water into tunnel and categorized into high risk zone and about 45% of tunnel route has moderately risk. The reason is that, in this tunnel, most of the water flows in rock fractures and fractures typically occur in a clustered pattern rather than in a regular or random pattern.

Key Words
tunnel; seepage hazard; classification; universal distinct element code

Address
A. Aalianvari: Mining Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

Abstract
In order to determine the rate of penetrability, water pressure test is used before the grouting. One of the parameters which have the highest effect is pressure. Mathematical modeling is used for the first time in this study to determine the optimum pressure. Thus, the joints that exist in the rock mass are simulated using cylindrical shell model. The joint surroundings are also modeled through Pasternak environment. In order to validate the modeling, pressure values obtained by the model were used in the sites of Seymareh and Aghbolagh dams and the relative error rates were measured considering the differences between calculated and actual pressures recorded in these operations. In water pressure test, in Seymareh dam, the error values were equal to 4.75, 3.93, 4.8 percent and in the Aghbolagh dam, were 22.43, 5.22, 2.6 percent and in grouting operation in Seymareh dam were equal to 9.09, 32.50, 21.98, 5.57, 29.61 percent and in the Aghbolagh dam were 2.96, 5.40, 4.32 percent. Due to differences in rheological properties of water and grout and based on the overall results, modeling in water pressure test is more accurate than grouting and this error in water pressure test is 7.28 percent and in grouting is 13.92 percent.

Key Words
water pressure test; grouting; hydraulic fracture; mathematical modeling; cylindrical shell model

Address
Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh: School of Mining, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran
Majid Masoudi: Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Iran
Reza Kolahchi: Department of Civil Engineering, Meymeh Branch, Islamic Azad University, Meymeh, Iran

Abstract
The effect of nearby cohesionless sloping ground on the uplift capacity of horizontal strip plate anchor embedded in sand deposit with horizontal ground surface has been studied numerically. The numerical analysis has been carried out by using the lower bound theorem of limit analysis with finite elements and linear optimization. The results have been presented in the form of non-dimensional uplift capacity factor of anchor plate by changing its distance from the slope crest for different slope angles, embedment ratios and angles of soil internal friction. It has been found that the decrease in horizontal distance between the edge of the anchor plate and the slope crest causes a continuous decrease in uplift capacity of anchor plate. The optimum distance is that distance between slope crest and anchor plate below which uplift capacity of an anchor plate has been found to decrease with a decrease in normalized crest distance from the anchor plate in presence of nearby sloping ground. The normalized optimum distance between the slope crest and the anchor plate has been found to increase with an increase in slope angle, embedment ratio and soil internal friction angle.

Key Words
strip anchor; uplift capacity; limit analysis; finite elements; cohesionless slope

Address
Paramita Bhattacharya and Sagarika Sahoo: Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur 721302, India


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