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CONTENTS
Volume 22, Number 2, February 2022
 


Abstract
Older or damaged structures can require significant retrofit to ensure they perform well in subsequent earthquakes. Supplemental damping devices are used to achieve this goal, but increase base shear forces, foundation demand, and cost. Displacement reduction without increasing base shear is possible using novel semi-active and recently-created passive devices, which offer energy dissipation in selected quadrants of the force-displacement response. Combining these devices with large, strictly passive energy dissipation devices can offer greater, yet customized response reductions. Supplemental damping to reduce response without increasing base shear enables a net-zero base shear approach. This study evaluates this concept using two incremental dynamic analyses (IDAs) to show displacement reductions up to 40% without increasing base shear, more than would be achieved for either device alone, significantly reducing the risk of response exceeding the unaltered structural case. IDA results lead to direct calculation of reductions in risk and annualized economic cost for adding these devices using this net-zero concept, thus quantifying the trade-off. The overall device assessment and risk analysis method presented provides a generalizable proof-of-concept approach, and provides a framework for assessing the impact and economic cost-benefit of using modern supplemental energy dissipation devices.

Key Words
earthquake; economic loss; passive devices; semi-active devices; structural dynamics; supplemental damping

Address
Geoffrey W. Rodgers: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand

J. Geoffrey Chase: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand

Thomas Roland: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand

Gregory A. Macrae: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand

Cong Zhou: Department of Civil Aviation, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Taicang, China

Abstract
Many public buildings such as schools, hospitals, etc., where partial infill walls are present in reinforced concrete (RC) structures, have undergone undesirable damage/failure attributed to captive column effect during a moderate to severe earthquake shaking. Often, the situation gets worsened when these RC frames are non-ductile in nature, thus reducing the deformable capability of the frame. Also, in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, it is mandatory to use fly-ash bricks for construction so as to reduce the burden on the disposal of fly-ash produced at thermal power plants. In some scenario, when the non-ductile RC frame, partially infilled by fly-ash bricks, suffers major structural damage, the challenge remains on how to retrofit and restore it. Thus, in this study, two full-scale one-bay, one-story non-ductile RC frame models, namely, bare frame and RC partially infilled frame with fly-ash bricks in 50% of its opening area are considered. In the previous experiments, these models were subjected to slow-cyclic displacement-controlled loading to replicate damage due to a moderate earthquake. Now, in this study these damaged frames were retrofitted and an experimental investigation was performed on the retrofitted specimens to examine the effectiveness of the proposed retrofitting scheme. A hybrid retrofitting technique combining epoxy injection grouting with an innovative and easy-to-implement steel jacketing technique was proposed. This proposed retrofitting method has ensured proper confinement of damaged concrete. The retrofitted models were subjected to the same slow cyclic displacement-controlled loading which was used to damage the frames. The experimental study concluded that the hybrid retrofitting technique was quite effective in enhancing and regaining various seismic performance parameters such as, lateral strength and lateral stiffness of partially fly-ash brick infilled RC frame. Thus, the steel jacketing retrofitting scheme along with the epoxy injection grouting can be relied on for possible repair of the structural members which are damaged due to the captive column effect during the seismic shaking.

Key Words
captive column effect; epoxy injection grouting; fly-ash infill; full-scale experiment; partial infill wall; retrofitting; steel jacketing

Address
Sanjay R. Kumawat: School of Infrastructure, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneshwar, Jatni, Odisha 752050, India

Goutam Mondal: School of Infrastructure, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneshwar, Jatni, Odisha 752050, India

Suresh R. Dash: School of Infrastructure, Indian Institute of Technology Bhubaneshwar, Jatni, Odisha 752050, India

Abstract
As steel is highly sensitive to temperature variations, fire exposure is more destructive in the case of steel structures in comparison to the concrete ones. The performance of an intermediate three-story steel moment frame with 4 spans was studied under the service load, thermal load and post-earthquake fire in this paper. Also, the effects of passive fire-protection materials such as ordinary cement-based and fire-retardant coatings were investigated. To model and analyze the structure; Abaqus software is utilized. In order to apply the earthquake effect, the push-over analysis method is employed. Changes in the stories deflection, endurance time and growth of nonlinear regions due to losses in the steel stiffness and strength, are among the issues considered in this study. As an interesting finding, the beams protected by ordinary cement-based coating could sustain the fire exposure at least for 30 minutes in all cases. The mentioned time is increased by employing a new fire-retardant protection, which could prevent significant loss in the structure resistance against fire, even after 60 minutes of exposure to fire.

Key Words
abaqus software; fire-retardant coating; post-earthquake fire; push-over analysis; steel moment frame

Address
Shayan Parvizizadeh: Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University Technology-International Campus Amirkabir Sq. Kish Island. Iran P.O. Box 79417-76655

Mohammad Taghi Kazemi: Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University Technology-International Campus Amirkabir Sq. Kish Island. Iran P.O. Box 79417-76655

Abstract
Regarding the importance of seismic pounding, the available standards and guidelines specify minimum separation distance between adjacent buildings. However, the rules in this field are generally based on some simple assumptions, and the level of confidence is uncertain. This is attributed to the fact that the relative response of adjacent structures is strongly dependent on the frequency content of the applied records and the Eigen frequencies of the adjacent structures as well. Therefore, this research aims at investigating the separation distance of the buildings through a probabilistic-based algorithm. In order to empower the algorithm, the record-to-record uncertainties, are considered by probabilistic approaches; besides, a wide extent of material nonlinear behaviors can be introduced into the structural model by the implementation of the hysteresis Bouc-Wen model. The algorithm is then simplified by the application of the linearization concept and using the response acceleration spectrum. By implementing the proposed algorithm, the separation distance in a specific probability level can be evaluated without the essential need of performing time-consuming dynamic analyses. Accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated using nonlinear dynamic analyses of adjacent structures.

Key Words
adjacent systems; level crossing; pounding; random vibrations; separation distance

Address
Sepideh Rahimi: Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University - Nour branch, Nour, Iran

Masoud Soltani: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalaale-al Ahmad Ave., Tehran, Iran

Abstract
The ancient underground cities are a collection of self-supporting spaces that have been manually excavated in the soil or rock in the past. Because these structures have a very high cultural value due to their age, the study of their stability under the influence of natural hazards, such as earthquakes, is very important. In this research, while introducing the underground city of Ouyi Nushabad located in the center of Iran as one of the largest man-made underground cities of the old world, the analysis of dynamic stability is performed. For this purpose, the dynamic stress-displacement analysis has been performed through numerical modeling using the finite element software PLAXIS. At this stage, by simulating the Khorgo earthquake as one of the large-scale earthquakes that occurred in Iran, with a magnitude of 6.9 on the Richter scale, dynamic analysis by time history method has been performed on three selected sections of underground spaces. This study shows that the maximum amount of horizontal and vertical dynamic displacement is 12.9 cm and 17.7 cm, respectively, which was obtained in section 2. The comparison of the results shows that by increasing the cross-sectional area of the excavation, especially the distance between the roof and the floor, in addition to increasing the amount of horizontal and vertical dynamic displacement, the obtained maximum acceleration is intensified compared to the mapping acceleration applied to the model floor. Therefore, preventive actions should be taken to stabilize the excavations in order to prevent damage caused by a possible earthquake.

Key Words
deformability; dynamic analysis; earthquake; finite element method; man-made underground city

Address
Hooman Rezaee:Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

Majid Noorian-Bidgoli:Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

Abstract
A moment-independent importance measure analysis approach was introduced to quantify the effects of structural uncertainty parameters on probabilistic seismic demands of simply supported girder bridges. Based on the probability distributions of main uncertainty parameters in bridges, conditional and unconditional bridge samples were constructed with Monte-Carlo sampling and analyzed in the OpenSees platform with a series of real seismic ground motion records. Conditional and unconditional probability density functions were developed using kernel density estimation with the results of nonlinear time history analysis of the bridge samples. Moment-independent importance measures of these uncertainty parameters were derived by numerical integrations with the conditional and unconditional probability density functions, and the uncertainty parameters were ranked in descending order of their importance. Different from Tornado diagram approach, the impacts of uncertainty parameters on the whole probability distributions of bridge seismic demands and the interactions of uncertainty parameters were considered simultaneously in the importance measure analysis approach. Results show that the interaction of uncertainty parameters had significant impacts on the seismic demand of components, and in some cases, it changed the most significant parameters for piers, bearings and abutments.

Key Words
importance measures; interaction; moment-independent; probabilistic seismic demands; uncertainty parameters

Address
Shuai Song: School of Civil Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, No. 11 Fushun Road, Shibei District, Qingdao 266033, China

Yuan H. Wu: School of Civil Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, No. 79 Yingze Road, Wanbolin District, Taiyuan 030024, China

Shuai Wang: School of Civil Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, No. 79 Yingze Road, Wanbolin District, Taiyuan 030024, China

Hong G. Lei: School of Civil Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, No. 79 Yingze Road, Wanbolin District, Taiyuan 030024, China

Abstract
The ancient underground cities are a collection of self-supporting spaces that have been manually excavated in the soil or rock in the past. Because these structures have a very high cultural value due to their age, the study of their stability under the influence of natural hazards, such as earthquakes, is very important. In this research, while introducing the underground city of Ouyi Nushabad located in the center of Iran as one of the largest man-made underground cities of the old world, the analysis of dynamic stability is performed. For this purpose, the dynamic stress-displacement analysis has been performed through numerical modeling using the finite element software PLAXIS. At this stage, by simulating the Khorgo earthquake as one of the large-scale earthquakes that occurred in Iran, with a magnitude of 6.9 on the Richter scale, dynamic analysis by time history method has been performed on three selected sections of underground spaces. This study shows that the maximum amount of horizontal and vertical dynamic displacement is 12.9 cm and 17.7 cm, respectively, which was obtained in section 2. The comparison of the results shows that by increasing the cross-sectional area of the excavation, especially the distance between the roof and the floor, in addition to increasing the amount of horizontal and vertical dynamic displacement, the obtained maximum acceleration is intensified compared to the mapping acceleration applied to the model floor. Therefore, preventive actions should be taken to stabilize the excavations in order to prevent damage caused by a possible earthquake.

Key Words
deformability; dynamic analysis; earthquake; finite element method; man-made underground city

Address
Hooman Rezaee:Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

Majid Noorian-Bidgoli:Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, Iran

Abstract
The importance of seismicity in developing countries and the strengthening of buildings is a topic of major importance. Therefore, the study of several solutions with the development of new technologies is of great importance to investigate the damage on retrofitted structures by using probabilistic methods. The Federal Emergency Management Agency considers three types of performance levels by considering different scenarios, intensity and duration. The selection and scaling of ground motions mainly depends on the aim of the study. Intensity-based assessments are the most common and compute the response of buildings for a specified seismic intensity. Assessments based on scenarios estimate the response of buildings to different earthquake scenarios. A risk-based assessment is considered as one of the most effective. This research represents a practical method for developing countries where exists many active faults, tall buildings and lack of good implementable approaches. Therefore, to achieve the main goal, two high-rise steel buildings have been modeled and assessed. The contribution of buckling-restrained braces in the elastic design of both buildings is firstly verified. In the nonlinear static range, both buildings presented repairable damage at the central top part and some life safety hinges at the bottom. The nonlinear incremental dynamic analysis was applied by 15 representative/scaled accelerograms to obtain levels of performance and fragility curves. The results shown that by using probabilistic methods, it is possible to estimate the probability of collapse of retrofitted buildings by buckling-restrained braces and tuned mass dampers, which are practical retrofitting options to protect existing structures against earthquakes.

Key Words
developing countries; FEMA-P58; high-rise buildings; nonlinear fuses; probabilistic methods

Address
Amir Masoumi Verki: Faculty of Civil Engineering, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, No. 1346, Valiasr Street, Mirdamad Intersection, Tehran, Iran

Adolfo Preciado: Department of Habitat and Urban Development, Western Institute of Technology and Higher Education (ITESO), 45604, Tlaquepaque, Jalisco, Mexico

Abstract
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is used to provide reliable information about the structure's integrity in near real-time following extreme incidents such as earthquakes, considering the inevitable aging and degradation that occurs in operating environments. This paper experimentally investigates an integrated wireless sensor network (Wi-SN) based monitoring technique for damage detection in concrete structures. An effective SHM technique can be used to detect potential structural damage based on post-earthquake data. Two novel methods are proposed for damage detection in reinforced concrete (RC) building structures including: (i) Jerk Energy Method (JEM), which is based on time-domain analysis, and (ii) Modal Contributing Parameter (MCP), which is based on frequency-domain analysis. Wireless accelerometer sensors are installed at each story level to monitor the dynamic responses from the building structure. Prior knowledge of the initial state (immediately after construction) of the structure is not required in these methods. Proposed methods only use responses recorded during ambient vibration state (i.e., operational state) to estimate the damage index. Herein, the experimental studies serve as an illustration of the procedures. In particular, (i) a 3-story shear-type steel frame model is analyzed for several damage scenarios and (ii) 2-story RC scaled down (at 1/6th) building models, simulated and verified under experimental tests on a shaking table. As a result, in addition to the usual benefits like system adaptability, and cost-effectiveness, the proposed sensing system does not require a cluster of sensors. The spatial information in the real-time recorded data is used in global damage identification stage of SHM. Whereas in next stage of SHM, the damage is detected at the story level. Experimental results also show the efficiency and superior performance of the proposed measuring techniques.

Key Words
damage detection; damage index; earthquake loading; reinforced concrete building; wireless sensor network

Address
Saqib Mehboob: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Taxila, Pakistan

Qaiser Uz Zaman Khan: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Taxila, Pakistan

Sohaib Ahmad: Works and Services Organization, Islamabad, Pakistan

Syed M. Anwar: Department of Software Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Taxila, Pakistan

Abstract
In this paper, quasi-static tests were carried out on three prefabricated reinforced concrete column-steel beam (RCS) sub-assemblages with floor slabs and one comparison specimen without floor slab. The effects of axial compression and floor slab on the seismic performance were studied, and finite element simulations were conducted using ABAQUS. The results showed that the failure of prefabricated RCS sub-assemblages with floor occurred as a joint beam and column failure mode, while failure of sub-assemblages without floor occurred due to beam plastic hinge formation. Compared to the prefabricated RCS sub-assemblages without floor slab, the overall stiffness of the sub-assemblages with floor slab was between 19.2% and 45.4% higher, and the maximum load bearing capacity increased by 26.8%. However, the equivalent viscosity coefficient was essentially unchanged. When the axial compression ratio increased from 0.24 to 0.36, the hysteretic loops of the sub-assemblages with floor became fuller, and the load bearing capacity, ductility, and energy dissipation capacity increased by 12.1%, 12.9% and 8.9%, respectively. Also, the initial stiffness increased by 10.2%, but the stiffness degradation accelerated. The proportion of column drift caused by beam end plastic bending and column end bending changed from 35% and 46% to 47% and 36%, respectively. Comparative finite element analyses indicated that the numerical simulation outcomes agreed well with the experimental results.

Key Words
finite element analysis; prefabricated structure; quasi-static experiment; RCS beam-column sub-assemblages; seismic performance

Address
Juju Bai: School of Civil Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China

Shengcai Li: School of Civil Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen 361021, China


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