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CONTENTS
Volume 19, Number 5, November 2020
 

Abstract
Through bolt connections in Concrete Filled Steel Tubes (CFSTs) has been proved to be good in terms of seismic performance and constructability. Stiffened extended end plate connection with full through type bolt helps to avoid field weld altogether, and hence to improve the quality of joints. An experimental study was conducted on the hysteretic performance of square interior beam-column connections using flat extended end plates with through bolt. The study focuses on the effect of the bond between the tie rod and the core concrete on the cyclic performance of the joint. The study also quantifies how much the interior joint is getting strengthened due to the confinement effect induced by bi-directional bolting, which is widely used in 3D moment resisting frames. For a better understanding of the mechanism and for the prediction of shear capacity of the panel zone, a mathematical model was generated. The various parameters included in the model are the influence of axial load, amount of prestress induced by bolt tightening, anchorage, and the concrete strut action. The study investigates the strength, stiffness, ductility, and energy dissipation characteristics. The results indicate that the seismic resistance is at par with American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) seismic recommendations. The bidirectional bolting and bond effect have got remarkable influence on the performance of joints.

Key Words
CFST column; through bolt connection; cyclic loading; panel zone mechanism; bidirectional bolting

Address
M.S. Ajith, K.P. Beena : Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Trivandrum, 695016, India
S. Sheela: Department of Civil Engineering, Mohandas College of Engineering, Trivandrum, 695544, India

Abstract
The multi-story timber structure with high platform base is one of the important architectural types in the traditional Chinese buildings. To study the dynamic characteristics and seismic responses on this kind of traditional structure, the 3-D finite element models of Xi'an drum tower which included the high platform base, upper timber structure and whole structure was established considering the structural form and material performance parameters of the structure in this study. By the modal analysis, the main frequencies and mode shapes of this kind of traditional building were obtained and investigated. The three kinds of earthquake excitations included El-Centro wave, Taft wave and Lanzhou wave were separately imposed on the upper timber structure model and the overall structure model, and the seismic responses on the tops of columns were analyzed. The results of time history analysis show that the seismic response of the upper timber structure is obviously amplified by high platform base. After considering the effect of high platform base, the mean value on the lateral displacement increments of the top column in the overall structure is more than 20.478% and the increase of dynamic coefficients was all above 0.818 under the above three different earthquake excitations. Obviously, it shows that the existence of high platform base has a negative influence on the seismic responses of upper timber structure. And the high platform base will directly affect the safety of the upper timber structure. Therefore, the influence of high platform base on the dynamic response of its upper timber structure cannot be neglected.

Key Words
traditional timber multi-story building; high platform base; earthquake excitations; dynamic responses; finite element analysis

Address
Xicheng Zhang and Hongtie Zhao: School of CivilEngineering, Xi

Abstract
The Mega-Sub Controlled Structure System (MSCSS), an innovative vibration passive control system for building structures, is improved by adding lead rubber bearings (LRBs) on top of the substructure. For the new system, a genetic algorithm is used to optimize the dynamic parameters and distributions of dampers and LRBs. The program uses various seismic performance indicators as optimization objectives, and corresponding results are compared. It is found that the optimization procedure for maximizing the energy dissipation ratio yields the best solutions, and optimized models have consistent seismic performances under different earthquakes. Seismic performances of optimized MSCSS models with and without LRBs, as well as the traditional Mega-Sub Structure model, are evaluated and compared under El Centro wave, Taft wave and 20 other artificial waves. In both elastic and plastic analysis, the model with LRBs shows significantly smaller story drift and horizontal acceleration than those of the other two models, and fewer plastic hinges are developed during severe earthquakes. Energy analysis also shows that LRBs installed in proper locations increase the deformation and energy dissipation of dampers, thereby significantly reduce the kinetic, potential, and hysteretic energy in the structure. However, LRBs do not have to be mounted on all the additional columns. It is also demonstrated that LRBs at unfavorable locations can decrease the energy dissipation for dampers. After LRBs are installed, the optimal damping coefficient and the optimal damping exponent of dampers are reduced to produce the best damping effect.

Key Words
MSCSS; energy analysis; optimization; genetic algorism; rubber bearing; mega-frame

Address
Buqiao Fan, Xun'an Zhang, Mustapha Abdulhadi:College of Mechanics and Civil Engineering, Northwestern Polytechnic University, Xi

Abstract
In the present research work, the effectiveness and the efficiency of a retrofitting approach using a layer of ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) jacket for damaged substandard exterior beam-column joints (BCJs) is experimentally investigated. The main objective of this study is to rehabilitate the already damaged BCJs to meet the serviceability requirements without compromising safety. According to the proposed strengthening technique, a chipped surface, lightly brushed with a dry condition was selected for making a successful bond between normal concrete substrate surface (NCSS) and UHPFRC. Then a fresh UHPFRC jacket with a thickness of 30 mm was cast around the damaged specimens. The entire test matrix was comprised of three 1/3 scale damaged exterior BCJs with a different column axial load (CAL). These specimens were repaired with UHPFRC and retested under monotonic loading. Based on the experimental results, repaired specimens showed an excellent performance in terms of their load-displacement response, maximum strength, displacement ductility, initial stiffness, secant stiffness and energy dissipation capacity when compared with the corresponding values registered when these specimens were tested in their virgin state. This rehabilitative intervention not only restored the strength, stiffness, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of severely damaged specimens but also improved their performance.

Key Words
repairing; UHPFRC jacketing; beam-column connection; energy dissipation; experiment

Address
Mohammed A. Al-Osta, Khan, Ashraf A :Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
Muhammad I. Khan and Shi-Yu Xu:Dept. of Architecture and Civil Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to first evaluate the seismic behavior of ageing arch bridges by using the Intensity Measure - based demand and DCFD format, which is referred to as the fragility-hazard format. Then, an investigation is performed for their seismic vulnerability. Analytical models are created for bridges concerning different features and these models are subjected to Incremental Dynamic Analysis (IDA) analysis using a set of 22 earthquake records. The hazard curve and results of IDA analysis are employed to evaluate the return period of exceeding the limit states in the IM-based probabilistic performance-based context. Subsequently, the fragility-hazard format is used to assess factored demand, factored capacity, and the ratio of the factored demand to the factored capacity of the models with respect to different performance objectives. Finally, the vulnerability curves are obtained for the investigated bridges in terms of the loss ratio. The results revealed that decreasing the span length of the unreinforced arch bridges leads to the increase in the return period of exceeding various limit states and factored capacity and decrease in the displacement demand, the probability of failure, the factored demand, as well as the factored demand to factored capacity ratios, loss ratio, and seismic vulnerability. Finally, it is derived that the probability of the need for rehabilitation increases by an increase in the span length of the models.

Key Words
masonry arch bridges; Demand and Capacity Factor Design (DCFD); fragility-hazard format; probabilistic seismic assessment; seismic vulnerability curve; loss ratio

Address
Mahdi Yazdani :Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Arak University, Arak, Iran
Vahid Jahangiri:Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

Abstract
With verifications through many relevant researches in the past few decades, adopting the equivalent lateral force procedure for designing seismically isolated structures as a preliminary or even final design approach has become considerably mature and publicly acceptable, especially for seismic isolation systems that mechanically exhibit bilinear hysteretic behavior. During the design procedure, in addition to a given seismic demand, structural designers still need to previously determine three parameters, such as mechanical properties of seismic isolation systems or design parameters and performance indices of seismically isolated structures. However, an arbitrary or improper selection of given parameters might cause diverse or even unacceptable design results, thus troubling structural designers very much. In this study, first, based on the criterion that at least either two design parameters or two performance indices of seismically isolated structures are decided previously, the rationality and applicability of design results obtained from different conditions are examined. Moreover, to consider variations of design parameters of seismically isolated structures attributed to uncertainties of mechanical properties of seismic isolation systems, one of the conditions is adopted to perform bounding analysis for seismic isolation design. The analysis results indicate that with a reasonable equivalent damping ratio designed, considering a specific variation for two design parameters (the effective stiffness and equivalent damping ratio) could present more conservative bounding design results (in terms of isolation displacement and acceleration transmissibility) than considering the same variation but for two mechanical properties (the characteristic strength and post-yield stiffness).

Key Words
equivalent linear analysis; bounding analysis; bilinear hysteretic model; seismic isolation system; mechanical property; design parameter; performance index

Address
Shiang-Jung Wang, Hsueh-Wen Lee,Wang-Chuen Lin:Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology,
No.43, Sec.4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106335, Taiwan
Chung-Han Yu, Cho-Yen Yang:National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering, No.200, Sec.3, Xinhai Rd., Taipei 106219, Taiwan


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