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CONTENTS
Volume 14, Number 5, May 2018
 

Abstract
This study aims to identify the effect of both longitudinal reinforcement details and damage level on making a decision of repairing pre-damaged bridge columns using basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) jackets. Two RC bridge columns with improper details of the longitudinal and/or transverse reinforcement were tested under the effect of a constant axial load and increasing lateral cyclic loading. Test results showed that the lap-splice column exhibited an inferior performance where it showed rapid degradation of strength before achieving the theoretical strength and its deformation capacity was limited; however, quick restoration is possible through a suitable rehabilitation technique. On the other hand, expensive repair or even complete replacement could be the decision for the column with the confinement failure mode. After that, a rehabilitation technique using external BFRP jacket was adopted. Performance-based design details guaranteeing the enhancement in the inelastic performance of both damaged columns were addressed and defined. Test results of the repaired columns confirmed that both reparability and the required repairing time of damage structures are dependent on the reinforcement details at the plastic hinge zone. Furthermore, lap-splice of longitudinal reinforcement could be applied as a key design-tool controlling reparability and restorability of RC structures after massive actions.

Key Words
bridge columns; repair; restoration; basalt FRP; residual displacement; confinement

Address
Mohamed F.M. Fahmy: International Institute for Urban Systems Engineering, Southeast University, China; Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Egypt
Zhishen Wu: Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Egypt

Abstract
The seismic isolation system makes a structure isolated from ground motions to protect the structure from seismic events. Seismic isolation techniques have been implemented in full-scale buildings and bridges because of their simplicity, economic effectiveness, inherent stability and reliability. As for the responses of an isolated structure due to seismic events, it is well known that the most uncertain aspects are the seismic loading itself and structural properties. Due to the randomness of earthquakes and uncertainty of structures, seismic response distributions of an isolated structure are needed when evaluating the seismic fragility assessment (or probabilistic seismic safety assessment) of an isolated structure. Seismic response time histories are useful and often essential elements in its design or evaluation stage. Thus, a large number of non-linear dynamic analyses should be performed to evaluate the seismic performance of an isolated structure. However, it is a monumental task to gather the design or evaluation information of the isolated structure from too many seismic analyses, which is impractical. In this paper, a new methodology that can evaluate the seismic fragility assessment of an isolated structure is proposed by using stochastic response database, which is a device that can estimate the seismic response distributions of an isolated structure without any seismic response analyses. The seismic fragility assessment of the isolated nuclear power plant is performed using the proposed methodology. The proposed methodology is able to evaluate the seismic performance of isolated structures effectively and reduce the computational efforts tremendously.

Key Words
isolated structure; fragility analysis, seismic response distribution; stochastic response database

Address
Seung-Hyun Eem: Risk and Environmental Saftey Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute,
111 Daedeok-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057, Republic of Korea
Hyung-Jo Jung: Department of Civil Engineering, Korean Advanced Institute for Science and Technology,
291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea

Abstract
The dynamic response and seismic damage of single-layer reticulated shells in the near field of a rupturing fault can be different from those in the far field due to the different characteristics in the ground motions. To investigate the effect, the dynamic response and seismic damage of this spatial structures subjected to two different ground motions were numerically studied by nonlinear dynamic response analysis. Firstly, twelve seismic waves with an apparent velocity pulse, including horizontal and vertical seismic waves, were selected to represent the near-fault ground motion characteristics. In contrast, twelve seismic records recorded at the same site from other or same events where the epicenter was far away from the site were employed as the far-fault ground motions. Secondly, the parametric modeling process of Kiewitt single-layer reticulated domes using the finite-element package ANSYS was described carefully. Thirdly, a nonlinear time-history response analysis was carried out for typical domes subjected to different earthquakes, followed by analyzing the dynamic response and seismic damage of this spatial structures under two different ground motions based on the maximum nodal displacements and Park-Ang index as well as dissipated energy. The results showed that this spatial structures in the near field of a rupturing fault exhibit a larger dynamic response and seismic damage than those obtained from far-fault ground motions. In addition, the results also showed that the frequency overlap between structures and ground motions has a significant influence on the dynamic response of the single-layer reticulated shells, the duration of the ground motions has little effects.

Key Words
single-layer reticulated shells; near-fault ground motions; far-fault ground motions; nonlinear dynamic analysis; frequencies; duration

Address
Ming Zhang: School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
Gerry Parke: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH, UK
Zhiwang Chang: School of Civil Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China

Abstract
This study explores the inelastic behavior of systems with flexible base. The use of a single degree of freedom system (ESDOF) with equivalent ductility to represent the response of flexible base systems is discussed. Two different equations to compute equivalent ductility are proposed, one which includes the contribution of rigid body components, and other based on the overstrength of the structure. In order to asses the accuracy of ESDOF approach with the proposed equations, the behavior of a 10-story regular building with reinforced concrete (RC) moment resisting frames is studied. Local and global ductility capacity and demands are used to study the modifications introduced by base flexibility. Three soil types are considered with shear wave velocities of 70, 100 and 250 m/s. Soil-foundation stiffness is included with a set of springs on the base (impedance functions). Capacity curves of the building are computed with pushover analysis. In addition, non linear time history analysis are used to asses the ductility demands. Results show that ductility capacity of the soil-structure system including rigid body components is reduced. Base flexibility does not modify neither yield and maximum base shear. Equivalent ductility estimated with the proposed equations is fits better the results of the numerical model than the one considering elastoplastic behavior. Modification of beams ductility demand due to base flexibility are not constant within the structure. Some elements experience reduced ductility demands while other elements experience increments when flexible base is considered. Soil structure interaction produces changes in the relation between yield strength reduction factor and structure ductility demand. These changes are dependent on the spectral shape and the period of the system with fixed and flexible base.

Key Words
dynamic soil structure interaction; inelastic behavior; ductility demands; equivalent single degree of freedom model; RC buildings

Address
Luciano R. Fernandez-Sola and Juan E. Huerta-Ecatl: Departamento de Materiales, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco, San Pablo #180 Z.C. 02200, Mexico

Abstract
The design of seismically isolated structures considering the stochastic nature of excitations, base isolators\' design parameters, and superstructure properties requires robust reliability analysis methods to calculate the failure probability of the entire system. Here, by applying artificial neural networks, we proposed a robust technique to accelerate the estimation of failure probability of equipped isolated structures. A three-story isolated building with susceptible facilities is considered as the analytical model to evaluate our technique. First, we employed a sensitivity analysis method to identify the critical sources of uncertainty. Next, we calculated the probability of failure for a particular set of random variables, performing Monte Carlo simulations based on the dynamic nonlinear time-history analysis. Finally, using a set of designed neural networks as a surrogate model for the structural analysis, we assessed once again the probability of the failure. Comparing the obtained results demonstrates that the surrogate model can attain precise estimations of the probability of failure. Moreover, our proposed approach significantly increases the computational efficiency corresponding to the dynamic time-history analysis of the structure.

Key Words
seismic reliability; neural network; base isolation; friction pendulum; sensitivity analysis; equipment protection

Address
Hesamaldin Moeindarbari and Touraj Taghikhany: Civil and Environmental Engineering Department Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Computational cost is one of the major obstacles for detailed risk analysis of structures. This paper puts forward a methodology for efficient probabilistic seismic loss assessment of structures using the Endurance Time (ET) analysis and the first-order reliability method (FORM). The ET analysis efficiently yields the structural responses for a continuous range of intensities through a single response-history analysis. Taking advantage of this property of ET, FORM is employed to estimate the annual rate of exceedance for the loss components. The proposed approach is an amalgamation of two analysis approaches, ET and FORM, that significantly lower the computational costs. This makes it possible to evaluate the seismic risk of complex systems. The probability distribution of losses due to the structural and non-structural damage as well as injuries and fatalities of a prototype structure are estimated using the proposed methodology. This methodology is an alternative to the prevalent risk analysis framework of the total probability theorem. Hence, the risk estimates of the proposed approach are compared with those from the total probability theorem as a benchmark. The results indicate a satisfactory agreement between the two methods while a significantly lower computational demand for the proposed approach.

Key Words
seismic risk; loss; life-cycle cost; endurance time method; reliability method; FORM

Address
Mohammad Ch. Basim: Department of Civil Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran
Homayoon E. Estekanchi and Mojtaba Mahsuli: Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Earthquakes have shown the vulnerability of unreinforced masonry (URM) structures. The aim of this research is to study a technique for in-plane seismic retrofitting of URM walls in which both diagonal and vertical steel strips are added to a single side of a URM wall. Specimens have been tested under quasi-static cyclic lateral load in combination with constant vertical load. The tests show that vertical and diagonal strips cause a significant increase in seismic capacity in terms of both strength (about 200%) and displacement at maximum (about 20%). Furthermore, this technique caused the failure modes of URM walls were influenced.

Key Words
seismic retrofit; clay brick; URM walls; vertical and diagonal steel strips; lateral strength and ductility

Address
Abbas Darbhanzi: College of Engineering, Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, Iran
Mohammad S. Marefat, Mohammad Khanmohammadi, Amin Moradimanesh and Hamid Zare: School of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Reducing response of buildings during earthquakes by mass dampers, has been examined in many articles and books. Nowadays, many researchers are trying to realistically examine this type of dampers by new methods of performance. In this paper, for the better study of tuned mass damper (TMD), two schematic models are presented for a passive TMD with softening stiffness (softening TMD) and a passive TMD with hardening stiffness (hardening TMD). Then by modeling and analysis of the damper on a single degree of freedom (SDOF) structure and an 11-story steel building, the dampers performance was evaluated. State space was used for damper and structure modeling and to solve nonlinear equations, the Newton-Raphson method was used. The results show that when the structure is subjected to the Chi-Chi earthquake, response of the sixth floor in the system without TMD reduces 54.0% in comparison to the structure with softening TMD. This percentage of reduction for hardening TMD is 55.0%. Also for the Tabas earthquake, reduction in the RMS acceleration of the sixth floor in the system with hardening TMD is 96.2% more than the structure without TMD. This percentage of reduction for hardening TMD is 96.3%.

Key Words
softening damper; hardening damper; tuned mass damper; geometrically nonlinear behaviour; nonlinear analyses

Address
Mohammad Khalil Khalili and Karim Badamchi: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Tabriz, 29 Bahman Blvd, Tabriz 51666-16471, Iran

Abstract
The seismic vulnerability of skewed bridges had been observed in many past earthquakes. Researchers have found that the in-plane rotation of the girders was one of the main reasons for the vulnerability of these types of bridges. To date, not many experimental works have been done on this topic, especially those including pounding between adjacent structures. In this study, shake table tests were performed on a bridge-abutment system consisting of a straight, 30o, and 45o bridge with and without considering pounding. Skewed bridges with the same fundamental frequency and those having the same girder mass as the straight bridge were studied. Under the loadings considered, skewed bridges with the same frequency as the straight tend to have smaller responses than those with the same mass. The average maximum bending moment developed in the piers of the 30o bridge with the same mass as that of the straight when pounding was not considered was 1.6 times larger than when the frequencies were the same. It was also found that the NZTA recommendations for the seat lengths of skewed bridges could severely underestimate the relative displacements of these types of bridges in the transverse direction, especially when pounding occurs. In the worst case, the average transverse displacement of the 45o bridge was about 2.6 times the longitudinal displacement of the straight, which was greatly over the limit suggested by the NZTAof 1.25 times.

Key Words
skewed bridge; pounding; shake table testing; girder unseating; bridge-abutment system

Address
Chern Kun, Ziqi Yang and Nawawi Chouw: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Auckland, 20 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010, New Zealand

Abstract
Recently, the adaptive nonlinear static analysis method has been widely used in the field of performance based earthquake engineering. However, the proposed methods are almost deterministic and cannot directly consider the seismic record uncertainties. In the current study an innovative Stochastic Adaptive Pushover Analysis, called \"SAPA\", based on equivalent hysteresis system responses is developed to consider the earthquake record to record uncertainties. The methodology offers a direct stochastic analysis which estimates the seismic demands of the structure in a probabilistic manner. In this procedure by using a stochastic linearization technique in each step, the equivalent hysteresis system is analyzed and the probabilistic characteristics of the result are obtained by which the lateral force pattern is extracted and the actual structure is pushed. To compare the results, three different types of analysis have been considered; conventional pushover methods, incremental dynamic analysis, IDA, and the SAPA method. The result shows an admirable accuracy in predicting the structure responses.

Key Words
Bouc-Wen model; stochastic adaptive pushover; stochastic linearization; extreme value

Address
Mohammad Jafari and Masoud Soltani: Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran


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