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CONTENTS
Volume 14, Number 1, February 2018
 

Abstract
Seismic retrofitting of existing buildings and design of earth-quake resistant buildings are important issues associated with earthquake-prone zones. Use of metallic-yielding dampers as an energy dissipation system is an acceptable method for controlling damages in structures and improving their seismic performance. In this study, the optimal distribution of dampers for reducing the seismic response of steel frames with multi-degrees freedom is presented utilizing the uniform distribution of deformations. This has been done in a way that, the final configuration of dampers in the frames lead to minimum weight while satisfying the performance criteria. It is shown that such a structure has an optimum seismic performance, in which the maximum structure capacity is used. Then the genetic algorithm which is an evolutionary optimization method is used for optimal arrangement of the steel dampers in the structure. In continuation for specifying the optimal accurate response, the local search algorithm based on the gradient concept has been selected. In this research the introduced optimization methods are used for optimal retrofitting in the moment-resisting frame with inelastic behavior and initial weakness in design. Ultimately the optimal configuration of dampers over the height of building specified and by comparing the results of the uniform deformation method with those of the genetic algorithm, the validity of the uniform deformation method in terms of accuracy, Time Speed Optimization and the simplicity of the theory have been proven.

Key Words
metallic-yielding damper; optimal outline configuration of dampers; optimal retrofitting; uniform deformation method; Genetic Algorithm

Address
Reza Karami Mohammadi, Maryam Mirjalaly, Masoud Mirtaheri: Department of Civil Engineering, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, 470 Mirdamad Ave.West, Tehran, Iran
Meissam Nazeryan: Department of Civil Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Azadi Ave., Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Three-dimensional panels are one of the modern construction systems which can be placed in the category of industrial buildings. There have always been a lot of studies and efforts to identify the behavior of these panels and improve their capacity due to their earthquake resistance and high speed of performance. This study will provide a comparative evaluation of behavior of updated three-dimensional panel\'s structural components under lateral load in both independent and dependent modes. In fact, this study tries to simultaneously evaluate strengthening effect of three-dimensional panels and the effects of system state (independent, L-shaped and BOX shaped Walls) with reinforcement armatures with different angles on the three-dimensional panels. Overall, six independent wall model, L-shaped, roofed L-shaped, BOX-shaped walls with symmetric loading, BOX -shaped wall with asymmetrical loading and roofed BOX-shaped wall were built. Then the models are strengthened without strengthened reinforcement and with strengthened reinforcements with an angle of 30, 45 and 60 degrees. The applied lateral loading, is exerted by changing the location on the end wall. In BOX-shaped wall, in symmetric and asymmetric loading, the load bearing capacity will be increased about 200 and 50% respectively. Now, if strengthened, the load bearing capacity in symmetric and asymmetric loading will be increased 3.5 and 2 times respectively. The effective angle of placement of strengthened reinforcement in the independent wall is 45 and 60 degrees. But in BOX-shaped and L-shaped walls, the use of strengthened reinforcement 45 degrees is recommended.

Key Words
three-dimensional panels; independent mode and system; improvement of lateral load capacity; strengthening panel

Address
Omid Rezaifar, Majid Ghohaki: Department of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Across from Sokan Park, Semnan, Iran
Hamun Adeli Nik: Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, 18, 28 Street, Gisha, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Prefabricated structures are constructed by bolted connections of separated members. The design and analysis of these structures are generally performed by defining fully hinges for the connection of separated members at the joint of junction. In practice, these connections are not fully hinged. Therefore, the assumption of semi-rigid connections (restrained or partially fixity) instead of fully hinge connections is a more realistic approach for bolted connections used in the prefabricated elements. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of semi-rigid connections on seismic performance of prefabricated structures. Nonlinear static analysis (pushover analysis) of a selected RC prefabricated structure is performed with SAP2000 structural analysis program by considering various partially fixity percentages for bolted connections. The target values of roof displacements obtained from the analyses according to ATC-40, FEMA-356, FEMA-440, and TEC-2007 codes are compared each other. The numerical results are given in tables and figures comparatively and discussed. The results show that the effects of semi-rigid connections should be considered in design and analysis of the prefabricated structures.

Key Words
prefabricated structures; semi-rigid connections; nonlinear static pushover analysis

Address
Mehmet Akkose: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey
Fezayil Sunca and Alperen Turkay: Department of Civil Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, Sivas, Turkey

Abstract
Base-isolated nuclear power plant (BI-NPP) structures are founded on expanded basemat as a flexible floating nuclear island, are still lacking the recommendation of the consideration of incoherent motion effect. The effect of incoherent earthquake motion on the seismic response of BI-NPP structure has been investigated herein. The incoherency of the ground motions is applied by using an isotropic frequency-dependent spatial correlation function to perform the conditional simulation of the reference design spectrum compatible ground motion in time domain. Time history analysis of two structural models with 486 and 5 equivalent lead plug rubber bearing (LRB) base-isolators have been done under uniform excitation and multiple point excitation. two different cases have been considered: 1) Incoherent motion generated for soft soil and 2) Incoherent motion generated for hard rock soil. The results show that the incoherent motions reduce acceleration and the lateral displacement responses and the reduction is noticeable at soft soil site and higher frequencies.

Key Words
incoherent earthquake motion; base-isolated nuclear power plant; seismic response

Address
Kaiser Ahmed, Dookie Kim: Department of Civil Engineering, Kunsan National University, Gunsan-si, 54150, Republic of Korea
Sang H. Lee: Power Engineering Research Institute, KEPCO E&C, Gimcheon, Republic of Korea

Abstract
A family of the structure-dependent methods seems very promising for time integration since it can simultaneously have desired numerical properties, such as unconditional stability, second-order accuracy, explicit formulation and numerical dissipation. However, an unusual overshoot, which is essentially different from that found by Goudreau and Taylor in the transient response, has been experienced in the steady-state response of a high frequency mode. The root cause of this unusual overshoot is analytically explored and then a remedy is successfully developed to eliminate it. As a result, an improved formulation of this family method can be achieved.

Key Words
overshooting, steady-state response, local truncation error, structure-dependent integration method

Address
Shuenn-Yih Chang and Tsui-Huang Wu: Department of Civil Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, 1, Sec. 3, Jungshiau East Road, Taipei 106-08, Taiwan

Abstract
This paper investigates the role of the masonry infills on the correlation between widely used earthquake Intensity Measures (IMs) and the damage state of 3D R/C buildings taking into account the orientation of the seismic input. For the purposes of the investigation an extensive parametric study is conducted using 60 R/C buildings with different heights, structural systems and masonry infills\' distributions. The results reveal that the correlation between the IMs and the seismic damage can be strongly affected by the masonry infills\' distribution, depending on the special characteristics of the structural system, the number of stories and the incident angle.

Key Words
reinforced concrete; masonry infills; nonlinear dynamic analysis; seismic excitation angle; seismic damage; ground motion intensity measures; correlation between IMs and seismic damage

Address
Konstantinos G. Kostinakis: Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Aristotle University Campus, 54124, Thessaloniki, Greece

Abstract
Low cyclic loading tests are conducted on the steel reinforced recycled concrete (SRRC) column-steel (S) beam composite frame joints. This research aims to evaluate the earthquake damage performance of composite frame joints by performing cyclic loading tests on eight specimens. The experimental failure process and failure modes, load-displacement hysteresis curves, characteristic loads and displacements, and ductility of the composite frame joints are presented and analyzed, which shows that the composite frame joints demonstrate good seismic performance. On the basis of this finding, seismic damage performance is examined by using the maximum displacement, energy absorbed in the hysteresis loops and Park-Ang model. However, the result of this analysis is inconsistent with the test failure process. Therefore, this paper proposes a modified Park-Ang seismic damage model that is based on maximum deformation and cumulative energy dissipation, and corrected by combination coefficient a. Meanwhile, the effects of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) replacement percentage and axial compression ratio on the seismic damage performance are analyzed comprehensively. Moreover, lateral displacement angle is used as the quantification index of the seismic performance level of joints. Considering the experimental study, the seismic performance level of composite frame joints is divided into five classes of normal use, temporary use, repair after use, life safety and collapse prevention. On this basis, the corresponding relationships among seismic damage degrees, seismic performance level and quantitative index are also established in this paper. The conclusions can provide a reference for the seismic performance design of composite frame joints.

Key Words
steel reinforced recycle concrete columns; steel beams; joints; seismic performance level; seismic damage model

Address
Jing Dong, Hui Ma, Nina Zhang, Yunhe Liu and Zhaowei Mao:
School of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Xi\'an University of Technology, Xi\'an, China

Abstract
The paper focuses on the seismic responses of a hyperbolic cooling tower resting on soil foundation represented by the three-parameter Vlasov elastic soil model. The three-parameter soil model eliminates the necessity of field testing to determine soil parameters such as reaction modulus and shear parameter. These parameters are calculated using an iterative procedure depending on the soil surface vertical deformation profile in the model. The soil and tower system are modeled in SAP2000 structural analysis program using a computing tool coded in MATLAB. The tool provides a two-way data transfer between SAP2000 and MATLAB with the help of Open Application Programming Interface (OAPI) feature of SAP2000. The response spectrum analyses of the tower system with circular V-shaped supporting columns and annular raft foundation on elastic soil are conducted thanks to the coded tool. The shell and column forces and displacements are presented for different soil conditions and fixed raft base condition to investigate the effects of soil-structure interaction. Numerical results indicate that the flexibility of soil foundation leads to an increase in displacements but a decrease in shell membrane and column forces. Therefore, it can be stated that the consideration of soil-structure interaction in the seismic response analysis of the cooling tower system provides an economical design process.

Key Words
hyperbolic cooling tower; response spectrum analysis; open application programming interface; finite element analysis; three-parameter foundation model

Address
Ali I. Karakas, Korhan Ozgan and Ayse T. Daloglu: Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, 61080, Turkey


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