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Volume 1, Number 3, July 2014

As smartphones came into wide use recently, it has become increasingly popular not only among young people, but among middleaged people as well. Most smartphones adopt capacitive full touch screen, so touch commands are made by fingers unlike the PDAs in the past that use touch pens. In this case, a significant portion of the smartphone's screen is blocked by the finger so it is impossible to see the screens around the finger touching the screen; this causes difficulties in making precise inputs. To solve this problem, this research proposes a method of using simple AR markers to improve the interface of smartphones. A marker is placed in front of the smartphone camera. Then, the camera image of the marker is analyzed to determine the position of the marker as the position of the mouse cursor. This method can enable click, double-click, drag-and-drop used in PCs as well as touch, slide, long-touch-input in smartphones. Through this research, smartphone inputs can be made more precise and simple, and show the possibility of the application of a new concept of smartphone interface.

Key Words
Smartphone; Augmented reality (AR); Marker; Interface; Human-computer interaction (HCI)

(1) Yuna Kang:
1st R&D Institute-3, Agency for Defense Development, 488 Bugyuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-152, Republic of Korea;
(2) Soonhung Han:
Department of Ocean System Engineering, Korean Advanced Institute for Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701, Republic of Korea.

This paper presents three different search engines for the detection of CAD-parts in large databases. The analysis of the contained information is performed by the export of the data that is stored in the structure trees of the CAD-models. A preparation program generates one XML-file for every model, which in addition to including the data of the structure tree, also owns certain physical properties of each part. The first search engine is specializes in the discovery of standard parts, like screws or washers. The second program uses certain user input as search parameters, and therefore has the ability to perform personalized queries. The third one compares one given reference part with all parts in the database, and locates files that are identical, or similar to, the reference part. All approaches run automatically, and have the analysis of the structure tree in common. Files constructed with CATIA V5, and search engines written with Python have been used for the implementation. The paper also includes a short comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each program, as well as a performance test.

Key Words
CAD; CATIA V5; Classification; Database; Dat mining; Design tree; Feature recognition; Knowledge Discovery; Python; Search engine

University of Wuppertal (FB D Mechanical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Informatics, D 42097 Wuppertal, Germany).

The failure of a subsea production plant could induce fatal hazards and enormous loss to human lives, environments, and properties. Thus, for securing integrated design safety, core source technologies include subsea system integration that has high safety and reliability and a technique for the subsea flow assurance of subsea production plant and subsea pipeline network fluids. The evaluation of subsea flow assurance needs to be performed considering the performance of a subsea production plant, reservoir production characteristics, and the flow characteristics of multiphase fluids. A subsea production plant is installed in the deep sea, and thus is exposed to a highpressure/low-temperature environment. Accordingly, hydrates could be formed inside a subsea production plant or within a subsea pipeline network. These hydrates could induce serious damages by blocking the flow of subsea fluids. In this study, a simulation technology, which can visualize the system configuration of subsea production processes and can simulate stable flow of fluids, was introduced. Most existing subsea simulations have performed the analysis of dynamic behaviors for the installation of subsea facilities or the flow analysis of multiphase flow within pipes. The above studies occupy extensive research areas of the subsea field. In this study, with the goal of simulating the configuration of an entire deep sea production system compared to existing studies, a DES-based simulation technology, which can logically simulate oil production processes in the deep sea, was analyzed, and an implementation example of a simplified case was introduced.

Key Words
Subsea production; Discrete event simulation; 3D visualization; Fluid flow simulation

(1) Jong Hun Woo, Jong Ho Nam:
Department of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Korea Maritime University, Dongsam-dong, Busan, Republic of Korea;
(2) Kwang Hee Ko:
School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, 500-712, Republic of Korea.

One of the hottest challenges in automotive industry is related to weight reduction in sheet metal forming processes, in order to produce a high quality metal part with minimal material cost. Stamping is the most widely used sheet metal forming process; but its implementation comes with several fabrication flaws such as springback and failure. A global and simple approach to circumvent these unwanted process drawbacks consists in optimizing the initial blank shape with innovative methods. The aim of this paper is to introduce an efficient methodology to deal with complex, computationally expensive multicriteria optimization problems. Our approach is based on the combination of methods to capture the Pareto Front, approximate criteria (to save computational costs) and global optimizers. To illustrate the efficiency, we consider the stamping of an industrial workpiece as test-case. Our approach is applied to the springback and failure criteria. To optimize these two criteria, a global optimization algorithm was chosen. It is the Simulated Annealing algorithm hybridized with the Simultaneous Perturbation Stochastic Approximation in order to gain in time and in precision. The multicriteria problems amounts to the capture of the Pareto Front associated to the two criteria. Normal Boundary Intersection and Normalized Normal Constraint Method are considered for generating a set of Pareto-optimal solutions with the characteristic of uniform distribution of front points. The computational results are compared to those obtained with the well-known Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II. The results show that our proposed approach is efficient to deal with the multicriteria shape optimization of highly non-linear mechanical systems.

Key Words
Sheet metal forming; Initial blank shape; Springback; Failure; Multi-objective optimization

(1) Fatima-Zahra Oujebbour, Abderrahmane Habbal, Ziheng Zhao:
INRIA Sophia Antipolis, OPALE Project Team, 2004 Route des Lucioles, 06902 Sophia Antipolis, France;
(2) Rachid Ellaia:
Mohammed V - Agdal University, LERMA, Mohammadia School of Engineering, Rabat, Morocco;
(3) Abderrahmane Habbal:
University Nice Sophia Antipolis, Mathematics Dept, 28 Avenue de Valrose, 06103 Nice Cedex 2, France.

Optimization of design is an important step in obtaining tissue engineering scaffolds with appropriate shapes and inner microstructures. Different shapes and sizes of scaffolds are modeled using UGS NX 6.0 software with variable pore sizes. The quality issue we are concerned is the scaffold porosity, which is mainly caused by the fabrication inaccuracies. Bone scaffolds are usually characterized using a scanning electron microscope, but this study presents a new automated inspection and classification technique. Due to many numbers and size variations for the pores, the manual inspection of the fabricated scaffolds tends to be error-prone and costly. Manual inspection also raises the chance of contamination. Thus, non-contact, precise inspection is preferred. In this study, the critical dimensions are automatically measured by the vision camera. The measured data are analyzed to classify the quality characteristics. The automated inspection and classification techniques developed in this study are expected to improve the quality of the fabricated scaffolds and reduce the overall cost of manufacturing.

Key Words
Bone scaffolds; Automated inspection; 3D print; Classification; Regression model; Neural networks

(1) Tzu-Liang Bill Tseng, Aditya Chilukuri:
Department of Industrial, Manufacturing and Systems Engineering, The University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 79968, USA;
(2) Sang C. Park, Yongjin James Kwon:
Department of Industrial Engineering, Ajou University, Suwon, South Korea.

To survive in the current shipbuilding industry, it is of vital importance for shipyards to have the ship components' accuracy evaluated efficiently during most of the manufacturing steps. Evaluating components' accuracy by comparing each component7339;s point cloud data scanned by laser scanners and the ship7339;s design data formatted in CAD cannot be processed efficiently when (1) extract components from point cloud data include irregular obstacles endogenously, or when (2) registration of the two data sets have no clear direction setting. This paper presents reformative point cloud data processing methods to solve these problems. K-d tree construction of the point cloud data fastens a neighbor searching of each point. Region growing method performed on the neighbor points of the seed point extracts the continuous part of the component, while curved surface fitting and B-spline curved line fitting at the edge of the continuous part recognize the neighbor domains of the same component divided by obstacles' shadows. The ICP (Iterative Closest Point) algorithm conducts a registration of the two sets of data after the proper registration's direction is decided by principal component analysis. By experiments conducted at the shipyard, 200 curved shell plates are extracted from the scanned point cloud data, and registrations are conducted between them and the designed CAD data using the proposed methods for an accuracy evaluation. Results show that the methods proposed in this paper support the accuracy evaluation targeted point cloud data processing efficiently in practice.

Key Words
Point cloud; Region growing method; B-spline curve; ICP; K-d tree

(1) Jingyu Sun, Kazuo Hiekata, Hiroyuki Yamato:
Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo, Environmental Building, 5-1-5 Kashiwano-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563, Japan;
(2) Norito Nakagaki, Akiyoshi Sugawara:
Sumitomo Heavy Industries Marine & Engineering Co., Ltd, 19, Natsushimacho, Yokosuka-shi, Kanagawa, 237-0061, Japan.

This paper reviews and identifies issues in the application of virtual commissioning technology for automated manufacturing systems. While the real commissioning of a manufacturing system involves a real plant system and a real controller, the virtual commissioning deals with a virtual plant model and a real controller. The expected benefits of virtual commissioning are the reduction of debugging and correction efforts during the subsequent real commissioning stage. However, it requires a virtual plant model and hence still requires significant amount time and efforts. Two main issues are identified, the physical model construction of a virtual device, and the logical model construction of a virtual device. This paper reviews the current literature related to the two issues and proposes future research directions to achieve the full utilization of virtual commissioning technology.

Key Words
Virtual commissioning; Virtual plant model; Virtual device model; DEVS; PLC simulation

(1) Chi G. Lee:
Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Toronto University, 5 King's College Road, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3G8, Canada;
(2) Sang C. Park:
Department of Industrial Engineering, Ajou University, San 5, Woncheon-dong, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon, Korea.

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