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CONTENTS
Volume 12, Number 6, June 2022
 


Abstract
Mining of ore minerals (sfalerite, cinnabar, and chalcopyrite) from the old mine has led in significant environmental effects as contamination of soils and plants and acidification of water. Also, nanoparticles (NP) have obtained global importance because of their widespread usage in daily life, unique properties, and rapid development in the field of nanotechnology. Regarding their usage in various fields, it is suggested that soil is the final environmental sink for NPs. Nanoparticles with excessive reactivity and deliverability may be carried out as amendments to enhance soil quality, mitigate soil contaminations, make certain secure land–software of the traditional change substances and enhance soil erosion control. Meanwhile, there's no record on the usage of Nano superior substances for mine soil reclamation. In this study, five soil specimens have been tested at 4 sites inside the region of mine (<100 m) to study zeolites, and iron sulfide nanoparticles. Also, through using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Extreme Learning Machine (ELM), this study has tried to appropriately estimate the mechanical properties of soil under the effect of these Nano particles. Considering the RMSE and R2 values, Zeolite Nano materials could enhance the mine soil fine through increasing the clay-silt fractions, increasing the water holding capacity, removing toxins and improving nutrient levels. Also, adding iron sulfide minerals to the soils would possibly exacerbate the soil acidity problems at a mining site.

Key Words
ANN; artificial intelligence models; ELM; management; mining activities; nano-soil; toxin

Address
Qi Liu: School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China/ Changsha Institute of Mining Research Co., LTD, Changsha 410083, China

Kang Peng: School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China

Jie Zeng: School of Traffic and Municipal Engineering, Chongqing Jianzhu College, Chongqing 400072, China

Riadh Marzouki: Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia

Ali Majdi: Department of Building and Construction Techniques, Al- Mustaqbal University College Babylon 51001, Iraq

Amin Jan: Faculty of hospitality, Tourism and Wellness, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, City Campus, 16100, Kota Bharu, Kelantan Malaysia

Anas A. Salameh: Department of Management Information Systems, College of Business Administration, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, 165 Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia

Hamid Assilzadeh: Department of Biomaterials, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences,
Chennai 600 077, India

Abstract
The free and forced vibration in addition to electric energy harvesting of a piezoelectric disk resting on two-parameter foundation modeled by modified couple stress as well as Kirchhoff plate theory is probed. The governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained using Hamilton's principle. Then, the free and forced vibration are solved using numerical solutions, generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM) and Newmark-beta method. The forced vibration is resulted from a base excitation load. Also, the possible voltage which can be harvested from this system is obtained using generalized integral quadrature method. The validity of the formulation and solution procedure is confirmed using a compassion study. The impact of parameters such as length effect, inner to outer radius ratio, and foundations parameters on the free and forced vibration as well as energy harvesting is investigated in detail. This paper can be a basis for future studies in the area of piezoelectric harvesters in small scales.

Key Words
energy harvesting; free and forced vibration; GDQM; micro/nano disk; modified couple stress theory; piezoelectric

Address
Kun Shang: College of Electrical Engineering, Yellow River Conservancy Technical Institute, Kaifeng 475004, Henan, China

Huafeng Shan: Keeson Technology Corporation Limited, Jiaxing 314000, Zhejiang, China

Salem Alkhalaf: Department of Computer, College of Science and Arts in Ar Rass, Qassim University, Ar Rass, Saudi Arabia

Riadh Marzouki: Chemistry Department, College of Science, King Khalid University, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia

Mohamed Amine Khadimallah: Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, Al-Kharj, 16273, Saudi Arabia/ Laboratory of Systems and Applied Mechanics, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, University of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia

Abstract
In this paper, a pulsed picosecond laser dressing method for bronze-bonded diamond wheel is studied systematically and comprehensively. The picosecond laser pulse ablation experiment is carried out, and the ablation thresholds of bronze-bonded and diamond abrasive particle are measured respectively. The results indicate that the single-pulse ablation thresholds of bronze-bonded are 0.89J/cm2, 0.24J/cm2 during strong/weak ablation stages. And the multi-pulse ablation thresholds of diamond abrasive particle are 1.69J/cm2, 0.49J/cm2 during strong/weak ablation stages. Obviously, diamond grains have less thermal damage during the process of gentle ablation. The diamond grains of the grinding wheel surface are graphitized during laser dressing. The bronze-bonded is relatively smooth and organizational stability, and the diamond grits have suitable prominent height, which are beneficial to maintain the good grinding performance of dressed bronze-bonded diamond grinding wheels.

Key Words
ablation thresholds; dressing; diamond grinding wheel; picosecond laser

Address
Yanyi Wang, Bang Hu and Wei Zhou: State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China/ Laser Research Institute, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China

Genyu Chen: Laser Research Institute, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China

Abstract
The critical buckling temperature rise of a newly proposed piezoelectrically active sandwich plate (ASP) has been investigated in this work. This structure includes a porous polymeric layer integrated between two piezoelectric nanocomposite layers. The piezoelectric material is made of a passive polymeric material that is activated by lead-free nanowires (NWs) of zinc oxide (ZnO) embedded inside the matrix. In both nanocomposite layers and porous core, functional graded (FG) patterns have been considered for the distributions of ZnO NWs and voids, respectively. By adopting a higher-order theory of plates, the governing equations of thermal buckling are obtained. This set of equations is then treated using an extended mesh-free solution. The effects of plate dimensions, porosity states, and the nanowire parameters have been investigated on the critical buckling temperature rises of the proposed lightweight ASPs with different boundary conditions. The results disclose that the use of porosities in the core and/or mixing ZnO NWs in the face sheets substantially arise the critical buckling temperatures of the newly proposed active sandwich plates.

Key Words
active sandwich plates; piezoelectric nanocomposite; porous material; thermal buckling; zinc oxide nanowires

Address
Kamran Behdinan and Rasool Moradi-Dastjerdi: Advanced Research Laboratory for Multifunctional Lightweight Structures (ARL-MLS), Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada


Abstract
We prepared two samples of ultrafine ferrihydrite (FH) nanoparticle ensembles of quite a different origin. First is the biosynthesized sample (as a product of the vital activity of bacteria Klebsiella oxytoca (hereinafter marked as FH-bact) with a natural organic coating and negligible magnetic interparticle interactions. And the second one is the chemically synthesized ferrihydrite (hereinafter FH-chem) without any coating and high level of the interparticle interactions. The interparticle magnetic interactions have been tuned by modifying the nanoparticle surface in both samples. The coating of the FH-bact sample has been partially removed by annealing at 150°C for 24 h (hereinafter FH-annealed). The FH-chem sample, vice versa, has been coated (1.0 g) with biocompatible polysaccharide (arabinogalactan) in an ultrasonic bath for 10 min (hereinafter FH-coated). The changes in the surface properties of nanoparticles have been controlled by XPS. According to the electron microscopy data, the modification of the nanoparticle surface does not drastically change the particle shape and size. A change in the average nanoparticle size in sample FH-annealed to 3.3 nm relative to the value in the other samples (2.6 nm) has only been observed. The estimated particle coating thickness is about 0.2‒0.3 nm for samples FH-bact and FH-coated and 0.1 nm for sample FH-annealed. Mössbauer and magnetization measurements are definitely shown that the drastic change in the blocking temperature is caused by the interparticle interactions. The experimental temperature dependences of the hyperfine field <Hhf>(T) for samples FH-bact and FH-coated have not revealed the effect of interparticle interactions. Otherwise, the interparticle interaction energy Eint estimated from the <Hhf>(T) for samples FH-chem and FH-annealed has been found to be 121kB and 259kB, respectively.

Key Words
ferrihydrite ultrafine nanoparticles; hyperfine structure; interparticle interactions; iron oxyhydroxide; superparamagnetic relaxation; surface coatings

Address
Yuriy V. Knyazev, Aleksandr A. Krasikov, Dmitry A. Velikanov, Mikhail N. Volochaev, Oleg A. Bayukov and Rauf S. Iskhakov: Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia

Dmitry A. Balaev, Roman N. Yaroslavtsev and Sergei V. Stolyar: Kirensky Institute of Physics, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia/ Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia

Yuriy L. Mikhlin: Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Federal Research Center KSC SB RAS, Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia

Abstract
In the current study, the nonlinear impact of the Von-Kármán theory on the vibrational response of non-homogeneous structures of functionally graded (FG) nano-scale tubes is investigated according to the nonlocal theory of strain gradient theory as well as high-order Reddy beam theory. The inhomogeneous distributions of temperature-dependent material consist of ceramic and metal phases in the radial direction of the tube structure, in which the thermal stresses are applied due to the temperature change in the thickness of the pipe structure. The general motion equations are derived based on the Hamilton principle, and eventually, the acquired equations are solved and modeled by the Meshless approach as well as a computer simulation via intelligent mathematical methodology. The attained results are helpful to dissect the stability of the MEMS and NEMS.

Key Words
beam theory; nonlinear analysis; nonlocal strain gradient theory; thermal stress; tube theory

Address
Xiongwei Wu and Ting Fang: School of Electronics and Information, Nanchang Institute of Technology, Nanchang 330044, Jiangxi, China

Abstract
This work shows the impregnation of scents using a graphene sponge (GS). This was functionalized by the modified Hummers method, pursuing to add different functional groups. It is proposed to achieve the release and seek to control it through electrical potential applied to the graphene sponge with essential oils. The graphene sponge was functionalized and steeped with two kinds of oil. The electrochemical study demonstrates the variation in the electrochemical behaviour of the functionalized graphene sponge without and impregnated with oil. The release of the oil and its aromatic scents was carried out by applying an electrical potential of 30 V, with a release rate of 1.86 mg/min. The heating of the sample that causes the release of oil, associated with the electrical resistance of the system, reaches temperatures of about 150°C. The essential oils, graphene sponge, surfactant, graphene sponge with essential oils, graphene sponge recuperated after applying electric potential, graphene sponge recovered by temperature and dipropylene glycol (DPG) were characterized using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), digital microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

Key Words
fragrance; graphene sponge; impregnation; odour; scent

Address
José Antonio Cabello Mendez and José de Jesús Pérez Bueno: Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica, S.C., Parque Tecnológico Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, Querétaro, México, 76703

Jorge Iván Mendoza Valencia: Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica, S.C., Parque Tecnológico Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, Querétaro, México, 76703/ Universidad Tecnológica de Tulancingo, Av. Ahuehuetitla 301, Reforma la Presa, 43642 Tulancingo, Hidalgo, México


Jonathan Soto Soto: Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo Tecnológico en Electroquímica, S.C., Parque Tecnológico Sanfandila, Pedro Escobedo, Querétaro, México, 76703/ Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Jocotitlán, Carretera Toluca-Atlacomulco KM 44.8 Ejido de San Juan y San Agustín,
50700 Jocotitlán, Méx., México

Maria Luisa Mendoza López: Tecnológico Nacional de México, Instituto Tecnológico de Querétaro, Av. Tecnológico s/n Esq. M. Escobedo, Col. Centro, Santiago de Querétaro, Querétaro, México, 76000

Mizraim Uriel Flores Guerrero: Universidad Tecnológica de Tulancingo, Av. Ahuehuetitla 301, Reforma la Presa, 43642 Tulancingo, Hidalgo, México

Abstract
The prolyl 3-hydroxylase family member 4 (P3H4), is associated with post-translational modification of fibrillar collagens and aberrantly activated in cancer leading to tumor progression. However, its role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is still unknown. Here we reported that P3H4 was highly expressed in renal cancer tissues and significantly positive correlated with poor prognosis. Knockdown of P3H4 inhibited the proliferation, migration and metastasis of renal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, and also, overexpression of it enhanced the oncogenic process. Mechanistically, P3H4 depletion decreased the levels of GDF15-MMP9 axis and repressed its downstream signaling. Further functional studies revealed that inhibition of GDF15 suppressed renal cancer cell growth and GDF15 recombinant human protein (rhGDF15) supplementation effectively rescued the inhibitory effect induced by P3H4 knockdown. Moreover, decreased levels of MMP9 caused by inhibition of P3H4-GDF15 signaling constrained the expression of PD-L1 and suppression of P3H4 accordingly promoted anti-tumor immunity via stimulating the infiltration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in syngeneic mice model. Taken together, our findings firstly demonstrated that P3H4 promotes ccRCC progression by activating GDF15-MMP9-PD-L1 axis and targeting P3H4-GDF15-MMP9 signaling pathway can be a novel strategy of controlling ccRCC malignancy.

Key Words
ccRCC; GDF15; immunosuppression; MMP9; P3H4; PD-L1

Address
Shuo Tian, Yan Huang, Dong Lai, Weihao Chen, Yundong Xuan, Yongliang Lu, Huayi Feng and Chenfeng Wang: Chinese PLA Medical School, Beijing 100853, PR China/ Department of Urology, The Third Medical Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, PR China

Hanfeng Wang, Songliang Du, Donglai Shen, Shengpan Wu, Qingbo Huang, Shaoxi Niu, Baojun Wang, Xin Ma and Xu Zhang: Department of Urology, The Third Medical Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, PR China

Xiangyi Zhang: Department of Urology, The Third Medical Centre, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853, PR China/ School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, PR China



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