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CONTENTS
Volume 12, Number 4, April 2022
 


Abstract
In this paper, natural frequency curves are presented for three specific end supports considering distinct values of nonlocal parameter. The vibrational behavior of zigzag double walled carbon nanotubes is investigated using wave propagation with nonlocal effect. Frequency spectra of zigzag (12, 0) double walled carbon nanotubes have been analyzed with proposed model. Effects of nonlocal parameters have been fully investigated on the natural frequency against against variation of Poisson's ratio. A slow increase in frequencies against variation of Poisson's ratio also indicates insensitivity of it for suggested nonlocal model. Moreover, decrease in frequencies with increase in nonlocal parameter authenticates the applicability of nonlocal Love shell model. Also the frequency curves for C-F are lower throughout the computation than that of C-C curves.

Key Words
double-walled CNTs; Love shell theory; nonlocal parameter; Poisson's ratio; vibration

Address
Muzamal Hussain and Sehar Asghar: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38040, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Hamdi Ayed: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia/ Higher Institute of Transport and Logistics of Sousse, University Sousse, Tunisia

Mohamed A. Khadimallah: Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, BP 655, Al-Kharj, 16273, Saudi Arabia/ Laboratory of Systems and Applied Mechanics, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, University of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia

Adil Alshoaibi: Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, P.O Box, Hofuf, 31982, Saudi Arabia

Abdelouahed Tounsi: YFL (Yonsei Frontier Lab), Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea/ Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, 31261 Dhahran, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia


Abstract
This paper presents an investigation about superharmonic and subharmonic resonances of a carbon nanotube reinforced composite beam subjected to lateral harmonic load with damping effect based on the modified couple stress theory. As reinforcing phase, three different types of single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) distribution are considered through the thickness in polymeric matrix. The governing nonlinear dynamic equation is derived based on the von Kármán nonlinearity with using of Hamilton's principle. The Galerkin's decomposition technique is utilized to discretize the governing nonlinear partial differential equation to nonlinear ordinary differential equation and then is solved by using of multiple time scale method. Effects of different patterns of reinforcement, volume fraction, excitation force and the length scale parameter on the frequency-response curves of the carbon nanotube reinforced composite beam are investigated. The results show that volume fraction and the distribution of CNTs play an important role on superharmonic and subharmonic resonances of the carbon nanotube reinforced composite beams.

Key Words
carbon nanotubes; composites; couple stress theory; nonlinear vibration; superharmonic and subharmonic resonances

Address
M. Alimoradzadeh: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Najafabad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Najafabad, Iran

S.D. Akbas: Department of Civil Engineering, Bursa Technical University, 16330, Bursa, Turkey

Abstract
Intermediate filaments are the mechanical ropes for both cytoskeleton and nucleoskeleton of the cell which provide tensile force to these skeletons. In providing the mechanical support to the cell, they are likely to buckle. We used conventional Euler buckling model to find the critical buckling force under different boundary conditions which they assume during different functions. However, there are many experimental and theoretical studies about other cytoskeleton components which demonstrate that due to mechanical coupling with the surrounding surface, the critical buckling force increases considerably. Motivated with these results, we also investigated the influence of surface effects on the critical buckling force of intermediate filaments. The surface effects become profound because of increasing ratio of surface area of intermediate filaments to bulk at nano-scale. The model has been solved analytically to obtain relations for the critical forces for the buckling of intermediate filaments without and with surface effects. We found that critical buckling force with surface effects increases to a large extent due to mechanical coupling of intermediate filaments with the surrounding surface. Our study may be useful to develop a unified experimental protocol to characterize the physical properties of Intermediate filaments and may be helpful in understanding many biological phenomenon involving intermediate filaments.

Key Words
buckling; Euler beam model; intermediate filaments; surface effects

Address
Muhammad Taj and Shaid Mahmood: Department of Mathematics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, 1300, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Mohamed A. Khadimallah: Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, BP 655, Al-Kharj, 16273, Saudi Arabia/ Laboratory of Systems and Applied Mechanics, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, University of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia

Hamdi Ayed: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia/ Higher Institute of Transport and Logistics of Sousse, University Sousse, Tunisia

Muzamal Hussain: Department of Mathematics, University of Malakand at Chakdara,Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa, Pakistan

Imtiaz Ahmad: Department of Mathematics, MirpureUniversity of Science and Technology (MUST), Mirpure-10250, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

Abstract
Synthesis of acrylate-based dispersion resins involves many parameters including temperature, ingredients concentrations, and rate of adding ingredients. Proper controlling of these parameters results in a uniform nano-size chain of polymer on one side and elimination of hazardous residual monomer on the other side. In this study, we aim to screen the process parameters via Internet of Things (IoT) to ensure that, first, the nano-size polymeric chains are in an acceptable range to acquire high adhesion property and second, the remaining hazardous substance concentration is under the minimum value for safety of public and personnel health. In this regard, a set of experiments is conducted to observe the influences of the process parameters on the size and dispersity of polymer chain and residual monomer concentration. The obtained dataset is further used to train an Adaptive Neural network Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) to achieve a model that predicts these two output parameters based on the input parameters. Finally, the ANFIS will return values to the automation system for further decisions on parameter adjustment or halting the process to preserve the health of the personnel and final product consumers as well.

Key Words
hazardous material; healthcare; internet of things (IoT); optimization; process monitoring

Address
Shihao Hou and Luyu Qiao: School of Computer Science and Technology, Shandong University of Finance and Economics, Jinan, China 250220

Lumin Xing: The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University & Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Jinan, Shandong, 250014, China/ City University of Macau, Macau, 999078, China


Abstract
Silica nanoparticles, which have a broad range of sizes and specific surface features, have been used in many industrial applications. This study was conducted to synthesize monodispersed silica nanoparticles directly from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) with an alkaline catalyst (NH3) based on the sol–gel process and the Stöber method. A central composite design (CCD) is used to build a second-order (quadratic) model for the response variables without requiring a complete three-level factorial experiment. The process was then optimized to achieve the minimum particle size with the lowest concentration of TEOS. Dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the size, dispersity, and morphology of the synthesized nanoparticles. After optimization, a confirmation test was carried out to evaluate the confidence level of the software prediction. The results revealed that the predicted optimization is consistent with experimental procedures, and the model is significant at the 95% confidence level.

Key Words
design of experiments (DOE); machine learning; nanoparticles; silica; Stöber method

Address
Hiresh Moradi Jae-Kyu Yang and Yoon-Young Chang: Department of Environmental Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, Korea

Peyman Atashi and Telma Kamranifard: Research and Development Department, Ghaffari Chemical Industries Corp., Tehran, Iran

Omid Amelirad: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
In this study, the elastic plane problem of a layered composite containing an internal or edge crack perpendicular to its boundaries in its lower layer is examined using numerical analysis. The layered composite consists of two elastic layers having different elastic constants and heights. Two bonded layers rest on a homogeneous elastic half plane and are pressed by a rigid cylindrical stamp. In this context, the Finite Element Method (FEM) based software called ANSYS is used for numerical solutions. The problem is solved under the assumptions that the contacts are frictionless, and the effect of gravity force is neglected. A comparison is made with analytical results in the literature to verify the model created and the results obtained. It was found that the results obtained from analytical formulation were in perfect agreements with the FEM study. The numerical results for the stress-intensity factor (SIF) are obtained for various dimensionless quantities related to the geometric and material parameters. Consequently, the effects of these parameters on the stress-intensity factor are discussed. If the FEM analysis is used correctly, it can be an efficient alternative method to the analytical solutions that need time.

Key Words
crack analysis; finite element method; fracture mechanics; stress-intensity factor

Address
Murat Yaylaci: Department of Civil Engineering, Recep Tayyip Erdogan University, 53100, Rize, Turkey

Abstract
Nickel substituted cobalt-zinc ferrite nanoparticles with composition Co0.5Zn0.5NixFe2-xO4 (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) were synthesized using a wet chemical method named citrate precursor method. Various characterizations of the prepared nanoferrites were done using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV visible spectroscopy and Fourier transform spectroscopy technique (FT-IR). XRD confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of the samples with single phase having one characteristic peak at (311). The value of optical band gap (Eg) was found to decrease with Ni substitution and have values in the range 2.30eV to 1.69eV. A Fenton-type system was created by photocatalytic activity using source of visible light for removal of methylene blue dye. Observations revealed increase in the degradation of methylene blue dye with increasing nickel content in the samples. The degradation percentage was increased from 77.32% for x = 0.25 to 90.16% for x = 1.0 in one hour under the irradiation of visible light. Also, the degradation process was found to have pseudo first order kinetics model. Hence, it can be observed that synthesized nickel doped cobalt-zinc ferrites have good capability for water purification and its degradation efficiency enhanced with increase in nickel concentration.

Key Words
degradation; Fenton-type; photocatalytic mechanism; porosity; spinel

Address
Preeti Thakur and Deepika Chahar: Department of Physics, Amity School of Applied Sciences, Amity University Haryana, 122413 India

Atul Thakur: Centre for Nanotechnology, Amity University Haryana, 122413 India

Abstract
In the present study, the nonlocal strain gradient theory is used to predict the size-dependent buckling and post-buckling behavior of geometrically imperfect nano-scale piezo-flexomagnetic plate strips in two modes of direct and converse flexomagnetic effects. The first-order shear deformation plate theory is used to analyze analytically nano-strips with simply supported boundary conditions. The nonlinear governing equations of equilibrium and associated boundary conditions are derived using the principle of minimum total potential energy with consideration of the von Kármán-type of geometric non-linearity. A closed-form solution of governing differential equation is obtained, which is easily usable for engineers and designers. To validate the presented formulations, whenever possible, a comparison with the results found in the open literature is reported for buckling loads. A parametric study is presented to examine the effect of scaling parameters, plate slenderness ratio, temperature, the mid-plane initial rise, flexomagnetic coefficient, different temperature distributions, and magnetic potential, in case of the converse flexomagnetic effect, on buckling and post-buckling loads in detail.

Key Words
flexomagnetic; geometrical imperfection; nano-plate strip; nonlocal strain gradient theory; piezomagnetic; post-buckling

Address
Hamed Momeni-Khabisi and Masoud Tahani: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran


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