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CONTENTS
Volume 12, Number 3, March 2022
 


Abstract
Dynamic behavior of temperature-dependent Reddy functionally graded (RFG) nanobeam subjected to thermomagnetic effects under the action of moving point load is carried out in the present work. Both symmetric and sigmoid functionally graded material distributions throughout the beam thickness are considered. To consider the significance of strain-stress gradient field, a material length scale parameter (LSP) is introduced while the significance of nonlocal elastic stress field is considered by introducing a nonlocal parameter (NP). In the framework of the nonlocal strain gradient theory (NSGT), the dynamic equations of motion are derived through Hamilton's principle. Navier approach is employed to solve the resulting equations of motion of the functionally graded (FG) nanoscale beam. The developed model is verified and compared with the available previous results and good agreement is observed. Effects of through-thickness variation of FG material distribution, beam aspect ratio, temperature variation, and magnetic field as well as the size-dependent parameters on the dynamic behavior are investigated. Introduction of the magnetic effect creates a hardening effect; therefore, higher values of natural frequencies are obtained while smaller values of the transverse deflections are produced. The obtained results can be useful as reference solutions for future dynamic and control analysis of FG nanobeams reinforced nanocomposites under thermomagnetic effects.

Key Words
higher-order shear theory; moving point load; nonlocal strain gradient nanobeams; symmetric and sigmoid FG; thermo-magnetic analysis; temperature-dependent material

Address
Mashhour A. Alazwari: Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Ismail Esen: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey

Alaa A. Abdelrahman: Mechanical Design and Prod. Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, P.O. Box 44519, Zagazig, Egypt

Azza M. Abdraboh: Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

Mohamed A. Eltaher: Mechanical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80204, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia/ Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha, Egypt

Abstract
Numerical modelling of an integrated Carbon NanoTube (CNT) membrane is only achievable if probable deformations and realistic alterations from a perfect CNT membrane are taken into account. Considering the possible forms of CNTs, bending is one of the most probable deformations in these high aspect ratio nanostructures. Hence, investigation of effect associated with bent CNTs are of great interest. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulation is utilized to investigate fluid flow dynamics in deformed CNT membranes, specifically when the tube cross section is not affected. Bending in armchair (5,5) CNT was simulated using Tersoff potential, prior to flow rate investigation. Also, to study effect of inclined entry of the CNT to the membrane wall, argon flow through generated inclined CNT membranes is examined. The results show significant variation in both cases, which can be interpreted as counter-intuitive, since the cross section of the CNT was not deformed in either case. The distribution of fluid-fluid and fluid-wall interaction potential is investigated to explain the anomalous behavior of the flow rate versus bending angle.

Key Words
carbon nanotube; desalination graphene; flow rate; monatomic fluids

Address
Mohammad Rezaee, Arian Yeganegi, Mohammad Namvarpour and Hojat Ghassemi: School of Mechanical Engineering, Iran University of Science & Technology, Narmak, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
In this research, the physical education training quality was investigated using the entropy model to compute variance associated with a random value (a strong tool). The entropy and undefined estimation principles are used to extract the greatest entropy of information dependent on the index system. In the study of tennis motion tracking from a dynamic viewpoint, such stages are utilized to improve the perception of the players' achievement (Lv et al. 2020). Six female tennis players served on the right side (50 cm from the T point). The initial flat serve from T point was the movement under consideration, and the entropy was utilized to weigh all indications. As a result, a multi-index measurement vector is stabilized, followed by the confidence level to determine the structural plane establishment range. As a result, the use of the unascertained measuring technique of information entropy showed an excellent approach to assessing athlete performance more accurately than traditional ways, enabling coaches and athletes to enhance their movements successfully.

Key Words
hybrid evaluation; information entropy; tennis motion tracking; unascertained measurement theory

Address
Yongfeng Zhong: College of Physical Education, Changsha University, Changsha 410022, Hunan, China

Xiaojun Liang: College of Humanities, Zhaoqing Medical College, Zhaoqing 526020, Guangdong, China

Abstract
In the current research, the thermal buckling characteristics of the bi-directional functionally graded nano-scale tapered beam on the basis of a couple of nonlocal Eringen and classical beam theories are scrutinized. The nonlocal governing equation and associated nonlocal boundary conditions are constructed using the conservation energy principle, and the resulting equations are solved using the generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM). The mechanical characteristics of the produced material are altered along both the beam length and thickness direction, indicating that it is a two-dimensional functionally graded material (2D-FGM). It is thought that the nanostructures are defective because to the presence of porosity voids. Finally, the obtained results are used to design small-scale sensors and make an excellent panorama of developing the production of nanostructures.

Key Words
bi-directional functionally graded material; non-uniform nanobeam; porosity dependent material; static analysis

Address
Xiaomin Shan: College of Engineering, Inner Mongolia Minzu University, Tongliao 028000, Inner Mongolia, China

Anzhong Huang: School of Management, Guangzhou Xinhua University, Dongguan 523133, Guangdong, China

Abstract
The behavior of hydrogen species on the surface of the catalyst during the Lewis acid transformation to form Bronsted acid sites over the spherical silica-supported WOx catalyst was investigated. To understand the structure-activity relationship of Lewis acid transformation and hydrogen bonding interactions, we explore the potential of using the in situ diffuse reflection infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) with adsorbed ammonia and hydrogen exposure. From the results of in situ DRIFTS measurements, Lewis acid sites on surface catalysts were transformed into new Bronsted acid sites upon hydrogen exposure. The adsorbed NH3 on Lewis acid sites migrated to Bronsted acid sites forming NH4+. The results show that the dissociated H atoms present on the catalyst surface formed new Si−OH hydroxyl species − the new Brnsted acid site. Besides, the isolated Si−O−W species is the key towards H-bond and Si−OH formation. Additionally, the H atoms adsorbed surrounding the Si−O−W species of mono-oxo O=WO4 and di-oxo (O=)2WO2 species, where the Si−O−W species are the main species presented on the Inc-SSP catalysts than that of the IWI-SSP catalysts.

Key Words
acid transformation; Bronsted acid; in situ DRIFTS; Lewis acid; silica; tungsten oxide

Address
Sirawat Boonpai, Joongjai Panpranot, Supareak Praserthdam, and Piyasan Praserthdam: Center of Excellence on Catalysis and Catalytic Reaction Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand

Sippakorn Wannakao: SCG Chemicals, Co., Ltd., 1 Siam-cement Rd, Bang sue, Bangkok 10800, Thailand

Prae Chirawatkul: Synchrotron Light Research Institute (Public Organization) 111 University Avenue, Muang District, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand

Abstract
Many studies have shown that Mg-Nd-Zn-Zr (abbreviated as JDBM) alloy has good biocompatibility and biodegradability as well as promotion of cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway may play a unique role in joint tissue by controlling the function of chondrocytes, osteoblasts and synoviocytes. However, it is not clear whether the JDBM alloy induces osteochondral repair through Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This study aims to verify that JDBM alloy can repair osteochondral defects in rats, which is realized by Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, the osteochondral defect model of the right femoral condyle non-weight-bearing area in rats was established and randomly divided into three groups: Control group, JDBM alloy implantation group and JDBM alloy implantation combined with signaling pathway inhibitor drug ICRT3 injection. It was found that after JDBM alloy implantation, the bone volume fraction (BVF) became larger, the bone trabeculae were increased, the relative expression of osteogenesis gene Runx2, Bmp2, Opn, Ocn and chondrogenesis gene Collagen II, Aggrecan were increased, and the tissue repair was obvious by HE and Masson staining, which could be inhibited by ICRT3.

Key Words
biodegradable magnesium alloy; western blot semi-quantitative analysis; Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

Address
Kexin Zhao: Department of Bone & Joint Surgery, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen Peking University-The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology Medical Center, Guangdong province China/ Department of Bone & Joint Surgery, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, PR China, 518036/ National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Orthopaedic Biomaterials, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, PR China, 518036

Yingqi Chen, Fei Yu, Weng Jian and Hui Zeng: Department of Bone & Joint Surgery, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, PR China, 518036/ National & Local Joint Engineering Research Center of Orthopaedic Biomaterials, Peking University Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, PR China, 518036

Ming Zheng: Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Health Science Center, Peking University, Beijing, China,100191/ Key Laboratory of Molecular Cardiovascular Science, Ministry of Education, Beijing, China

Abstract
Evaluating the temporal and spatial changes in the ecosystem service value (ESV) of the Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve is important for understanding the impact of human activities on natural ecosystem and guiding ecosystem restoration and environmental pollution control. In this study, remotely sensed land-cover data and the equivalent factor method were used to analyze the spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of the ESV in Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve from 1992 to 2015, and regression analysis was employed to determine the factors driving changes in the ESV. The results show that grassland was the main type of ecosystem in the study area, and the transformation of grassland into bare areas was the primary change in land cover. Additionally, the ESV in the study area first decreased and then increased, with an annual growth rate of 0.69%. The ESV mainly increased in the north of the Yellow River's source area, and mainly decreased in the northwest of the Yangtze River's source area. Finally, the gross output value of agriculture, urbanization rate and proportion of secondary industry were found to be the main factors driving the ESV in the study area.

Key Words
driving force; ecosystem service value; environmental pollution; hotspot analysis; Sanjiangyuan nature reserve

Address
Hao Liu, Chang Shu and Lihui Sun: Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China

Abstract
In this work, the vibrational frequency of two layered FGM cylindrical shell with and without the effects of internal pressure under ring support are discussed in detailed. The functionally graded materials of a cylindrical shell are designed for specific purpose and studied under various boundary conditions. The Love shell dynamical equations theory are utilized to find the relationship between the curvature displacement and strain displacement. Natural frequency vibrations are analyzed by using volume polynomial for bi-layered FGM shell under ring support both for with and without internal pressures.

Key Words
bi-layered FGM; functionally graded materials; internal pressure; natural frequency

Address
Madiha Ghamkhar: Mathematics and Statistics Department, University of Agriculture, Faislabad, Pakistan

Imene Harbaoui: Laboratory of Applied Mechanics and Engineering LR-MAI, University Tunis El Manar- -ENIT BP37- Le belvédère, 1002, Tunisia

Muzamal Hussain: Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Hamdi Ayed: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, King Khalid University, Abha 61421, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia/ Higher Institute of Transport and Logistics of Sousse, University of Sousse, Sousse 4023, Tunisia

Mohamed A. Khadimallah: Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Engineering, Civil Engineering Department, BP 655, Al-Kharj, 16273, Saudi Arabia/ Laboratory of Systems and Applied Mechanics, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, University of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia

Adil Alshoaibi: Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, Al-Hassa, P.O. Box 400, Hofuf 31982, Saudi Arabia


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