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CONTENTS
Volume 10, Number 6, June 2021
 


Abstract
The study of cell components has been an active area of research since the last few decades. Cytoskeleton of the cell which gives shape and provides structure to the cell has three main components, microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Each of the cytoskeletal components is surrounded by various filamentous or the other cytoskeletal components act as a surface layer on these filaments. The stability of these components affected when cell perform various functions in the body and as a result these filaments buckle, vibrate and bend. In the present study the buckling behavior of microfilament is discussed with the effects of surface by using Euler Bernoulli beam theory and the obtained results for free and surrounded microfilament are shown in the tables and figures.

Key Words
microfilaments; Euler conventional beam model; buckling; surface effects

Address
Muhammad Taj, Shaid Mahmood, Muhammad Safeer and Manzoor Ahmad: Department of Mathematics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, 1300, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Mohamed A. Khadimallah, Yahya Rashid, Joffin Ponnore and Abdelaziz Al Qahtani: Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Engineering, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia

Muzamal Hussain, M. Nawaz Naeem and Sehar Asghar: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan

S. R. Mahmoud: GRC Department, Faculty of Applied studies, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Afaf S. Alwabli: Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Abdelouahed Tounsi: YFL (Yonsei Frontier Lab), Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea



Abstract
Nano batteries are manufactured batteries which use nanoscale technology, small particles measuring less than 100 nanometers or 10-7 meters. In addition, because of plentiful potassium supplies and less cost, potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) are taken as possible substitutes for lithium-ion batteries for massive energy storing systems. Our modern lifestyle could be totally different without rechargeable batteries. Regarding their economic and management usage, these batteries are applied in electric and hybrid vehicles, devices, and renewable power generation systems. Accordingly, regarding the huge K ion radius, it is a difficult process for identifying relevant materials with excellent cycling stability and capacity. At present, the production of suitable anode materials with high specific capacities, long cycle life and low costs for PIBs remains a major challenge. Also, the continuing improvement in defining future electors, the manufacture of PIBs has been complicated by multiple challenges, namely low reversible performance, insufficient cycling stability and poor energy density, all of which have created important doubts for the effective implications of PIBs. Nano-particles have shown various advantages for enhanced energy and power density, cyclability and safety when it comes to designing and producing electrode materials via efficient computer simulation. In combination with large volume expansion, slow reaction kinetics, and low electrical conductivity the main cause for the degradation of SnO2 reaction reversibility and power decay observed are not as obvious as those of Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) as anodes of sodium-ion batteries (SIBs), and potassium-ion batteries (KIBs).

Key Words
biomass; hard carbon; potassium-ion batteries; nitrogen-doped; energy storage mechanism

Address
Wensheng Dai: Financial School, China Financial Policy Research Center, International Monetary Institute, Renmin University of China, Beijing 100872, China

Yousef Zand: Department of Civil Engineering,Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz, Iran

Alireza Sadighi A: Ghateh Gostar Novin Company, Tabriz, Iran

Abdellatif Selmi: Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj 11942, Saudi Arabia/ Ecole Nationale d'Ingénieurs deTunis (ENIT), Civil Engineering Laboratory, B.P. 37, Le belvédère1002, Tunis, Tunisia

Angel Roco-Videla: Programa Magister en ciencias químico-biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad Bernardo O'Higgins, Santiago-Chile/ Departamento de ingeniería Civil, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Concepción-Chile

Karzan Wakil: Department of Computer, College of Science, University of Halabja, Halabja 46018, Kurdistan Region, Iraq/ Research Center, Sulaimani Polytechnic University, Sulaimani 46001, Kurdistan Region, Iraq

Alibek Issakhov: Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan/ Kazakh-British Technical University, Almaty, Kazakhstan



Abstract
An isotropic Pasternak-Like model is considered to elaborate the behavior of electric potential of neural tissue when immersed within elastic medium. Special attention is paid to the non dimensionlization of the parameters of the surrounding elastic medium. We found that shear layer potential per unit area and is the Winkler foundation-like constant, are two constants of Pasternak-like model and they actually effect on the potential of neural tissue. It is found that elastic medium affects the potential behavior of neural tissue. Elastic medium effect on the potential behavior of neural tissue is due to the Pasternak foundation parameters. Therefore the surrounding medium affects the potential of neural tissue during its transportation of functioning.

Key Words
Pasternak-Like model; electric potential; shear layer potential per unit area; Winkler foundation-like constant; neural tissue

Address
Muhammad Taj, Muhammad Safeer and Monzoor Ahmad: Department of Mathematics, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, 1300, Azad Kashmir, Pakistan

Mohamed A. Khadimallah, Mohamed Elbahar, Mohammed Mujalli and Amjad Qazaq: Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, College of Engineering, Al-Kharj, Saudi Arabia

Muzamal Hussain and Sehar Asghar: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Elimame Elaloui: Laboratory of Materials Applications in Environment, Water and Energy LR21ES15, Faculty of Sciences, University of Gafsa, Tunisia

Abdelouahed Tounsi: YFL (Yonsei Frontier Lab), Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea/ Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, 31261 Dhahran, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia





Abstract
Sandwich structures made of composites are widely applicable in different industries, including aerospace and power plants. The combination of a porous sandwich with functionally graded materials makes structures more resistant to analyze buckling and vibration behaviors. According to its high surface area and high strength, adding graphene platelets to the composite increases the final mechanical properties of composites. In the present paper, the effect of volume fraction distribution of fibers, numbers, and angles of layers in composites will be investigated. Additionally, the different porosity coefficients and distribution along the beam length will consider and the best porosity distributions will identify. Pasternak elastic foundation is considered during the beam length as linearly and parabolically. The equations of motion for the Timoshenko sandwich beam are solved by the differential quadrature method (DQM). The influences of adding graphene platelets with three various patterns on critical buckling load and natural frequency of composite beam will investigate. Also, the buckling and vibration behaviors of pure composites, perfect composite and FGM (Functionally Graded Material) composites will compare. Moreover, the critical buckling load will obtain by the Mori-Tanaka model.

Key Words
carbon nanotubes; graphene platelets; Timoshenko sandwich beam; porous core; DQM

Address
Mohammad Mehdi Nejadi and Mehdi Mohammadimehr: Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan P.O. Box 87317-53153, Kashan, Iran

Mojtaba Mehrabi: Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Kashan P.O. Box 87317-53153, Kashan, Iran/ Department of Solid Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran


Abstract
This study aimed to develop a collagen/polycaprolactone (CP) fibrous scaffold decorated with Graphene (Gr) nanoplatelets (Gr-CP). In previous studies, accessibility of cells to the surface of Gr nanoplatelet was missed. Nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning which sprayed Gr nanoplatelets (1 wt.%) to synthesize the Gr-CP scaffold. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized for investigation of chemical structure. Tensile tests were performed to study the influence of Gr on the mechanical properties of scaffolds. Cell differentiation was analyzed based on MAP2 and TUJ1 expression levels using real-time PCR technique in 6 groups. The variables examined in this experiment was the neural differentiating chemical medium, low-frequency electromagnetic field (LFEMF; 50Hz, 1mT) and Gr. Based on the results, Young's modulus, tensile strength and work of fracture ratio of the Gr-CP were 1.68, 2.41 and 1.42 times higher than those of the CP scaffold, respectively. MTT assay outcomes were indicative of scaffold cytocompatibility. The group treated with all three factors exhibited the highest MAP2 expression level compared to other groups. Based on the obtained results, exposing stem cells to the combined treatment of Gr and LFEMF can be used as a promising method to induce neuronal differentiation.

Key Words
low-frequency electromagnetic field; graphene; nanofiber; neuron, cell differentiation; gene expression

Address
Marzie Moraveji: National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran/ Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Hamid Keshvari and Akbar Karkhaneh: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran

Shahin Bonakdar and Nooshin Haghighipour: National Cell Bank of Iran, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran

Amin Hadi: Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran



Abstract
This review highlights and categorizes the approaches for preparation of CNTs dispersion and polymer/CNTs composites via solution-based strategies. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) demonstrate unique physical and chemical properties, which allow several exciting potential applications in various fields including nanocomposites. Presently, the commercialized application of CNTs is still quite limited due to the formation of CNTs bundles, which significantly degrade the properties. Therefore, well dispersion of CNTs in nanocomposites is quite important, especially for CNTs/polymer composites, as a small amount of CNTs can improve the composite properties dramatically. This article will review the research on the dispersion of CNTs (including covalent and non-covalent functionalization) and the fabrication of CNTs/polymer composites through solution-based strategies by using the CNT dispersions. Moreover, the factors influencing the properties of CNTs/polymer composites will be discussed as well as the future outlook.

Key Words
carbon nanotubes; covalent; non-covalent; functionalization; solution

Address
Tao Feng, Neng Liu, Shunjie Wang, Can Qin, Shengwei Shi, Xueying Zeng and Gang Liu: Hubei Key Laboratory of Plasma Chemistry and Advanced Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Guanggu 1st road, Wuhan 430205, China


Abstract
The significant issue that has been investigated in this research due to the great clinical potential is to separate a circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the peripheral blood and cancer treatment in advance. Nonetheless, it is difficult to detect CTCs because of the rare existence of CTCs in the middle of peripheral blood. It is found that the need of high resolution ethods is crucial because there is a similarity in size range between CTCs types such as the cells of breast cancer and the white blood cells (WBCs). This paper presents a device which can be used for tumor cells separation from the cells of blood with nonstop flow that is helped by fractionating dielectrophoresis (DEP) field-flow. The reason that leads CTCs to separate from the cells of blood is the obvious different sizes of hydrodynamics focusing and dielectrophoretic force. Numerous attempts have been made to calculate CTCs trajectories with the aid of simulating the flow speed and electric field and it reveals an accurate comparison of them with the measured results. Furthermore, the low applied voltage such 10 Vpp with which the represented device can be utilized. The high precision and efficiency of particle separation can be obtained by the device as well. According to the differences in size, this approach has various application for separation of other particles sorts. Based on our findings in this study, it is assumed that our device is beneficial for studying cancer and also has an excellent capability of separating tumor cells from blood cells.

Key Words
circulating tumor cell; microfluidic device; separation; dielectrophoresis; hydrodynamic flow focusing; WBCs; RBCs

Address
Xin Li: School of Clinical Medicine, Weifang Medical University, Weifang 261053, Shandong, China

Yanping Liu: Physical Examination Center, Qingdao Municipal Hospital (West), Qingdao 266002, Shandong, China

Yingcui Wang: 3Department of Cardiology, Qilu Hospital (Qingdao), Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Qingdao 266035, Shandong, China

Caixia Zou: Internal Medicine Nursing, Qingdao Municipal Hospital (West), Qingdao 266002, Shandong, China

Abstract
Disseminated candidiasis (DC) arising from nosocomial fungal infection is a life-threatening complication in critically ill, nonneutropenic patients. The overall nosocomial fungal infection rate in United States hospitals doubled from 1980–1990. Until recently, amphotericin B was the only agent available for the treatment of life-threatening candidal infections, but its use is plagued by toxicities including nephrotoxicity and infusion-related reactions such as rigors and hypotension. The availability of fluconazole, which is regarded more much less toxic than amphotericin B, prompted a surge in research to determine if it is as efficacious in the management of candidemia and hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. Complicating the interpretation of studies is the broad range of infection severity, from candidemia that may be transient and self-limiting to life-threatening hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. This study has used the models of Artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector regression (SVR) to accurately assess the clinical trials comparing fluconazole and amphotericin B demonstrate the efficacy of fluconazole for catheter-associated candidemia in critically ill patients when the likely pathogen is Candida albicans. As a result, Amphotericin B should remain the first-line agent for the management of candidemia and hematogenously disseminated candidiasis in all other patients. Also, SVR could accurately assess the efficacy of fluconazole for catheter-associated candidemia in critically ill patients.

Key Words
caspofungin; hormones; therapy of chemotherapy; induced disseminated candidiasis

Address
Liang Yali, Qiu Zhichao and Lan Hai: Chinese Herbal Department, The Shunde Affiliated Hospital to Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, PR, China

Li Yaohe, Liu Anping, Chen Zhixiong, Huliwen, Luo man and He jing: Hematology department, the First Affiliated Hospital to Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, PR, China

Xiaoyang: Cell Translational Medicine center, The Second Affiliated hospital, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, PR, China


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