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CONTENTS
Volume 13, Number 5, May 2022
 


Abstract
The rising prices of landfills and the lack of cement production are motivating researchers to be more interested in using wastes to produce concrete mixtures materials. The use of waste materials such as eggshell and matakoline waste not only reduces landfill costs and space, but also reduces the cost of cement production for the concrete mixture. However, recycling waste materials has become critical in order to effectively manage environmental sustainability. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the appropriate properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) by incorporating waste materials such as crushed ceramics as coarse aggregate and nano egg shell (NES) and nanoclay (NC) as cement replacements. Fresh properties of SCC, such as segregation, flow time and diameter, V-funnel, H2/H1 ratio, and fresh unit weight of concrete mixtures, as well as hardened properties, such as 7, 14, and 28 days compressive strength and 28 and 90 days flexural strength, were measured for this purpose. The presence of NC in the SCC mixture enhanced the compressive strength of the concrete when 5% of NES was added or in the case without the addition of NES compared to the control mixture. The flexural strength enhanced with the incorporation of NC in the SCC increased the flexural strength of the concrete compared to the control mixture, but the incorporation of 5% of NES decreased the flexural strength compared to the mixtures with NC. These results prove the possibility of using crushed ceramics as the coarse aggregate, and NES and NC as substitutes for 5, 7, and 10% of the cement in SCC, because the properties of such SCC in hardened and fresh states are satisfactory.

Key Words
fresh and hardened properties of SCC; nanoclay; nano egg shell; self-compacting concrete; sustainable concrete; waste materials

Address
Nahla N. Hilal: Scientific Affairs Department, University of Fallujah, HQ, Fallujah 31002, Anbar, Iraq
Marijana Hadzima-Nyarko: Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Vladimira Preloga 3, 31000 Osijek, Croatia

Abstract
The objective of this study is to simulate the two-phase flow in pipes with various two-fluid models and determinate the shear stress. A hyperbolic shear deformation theory is used for modelling of the pipe. Two-fluid models are solved by using the conservative shock capturing method. Energy relations are used for deriving the motion equations. When the initial conditions of problem satisfied the Kelvin Helmholtz instability conditions, the free-pressure two-fluid model could accurately predict discontinuities in the solution field. A numerical solution is applied for computing the shear stress. The two-pressure twofluid model produces more numerical diffusion compared to the free-pressure two-fluid and single-pressure two-fluid models. Results show that with increasing the two-phase percent, the shear stress is reduced.

Key Words
critical fluid velocity; dynamic response; hyperbolic shear deformation theory; numerical method; twophase flow

Address
Chuanzhang Zheng, Gongxing Yan: School of Architectural Engineering, Chongqing Creation Vocational College, Yongchuan 402160, Chongqing, China
Mohamed Amiine Khadimallah: Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al-Kharj, 16273, Saudi Arabia; Laboratory of Systems and Applied Mechanics, Polytechnic School of Tunisia, University of Carthage, Tunis, Tunisia
Alireza Zamani Nouri: Department of Civil Engineering, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Amir Behshad: Faculty of Technology and Mining, Yasouj University, Choram 75761-59836, Iran

Abstract
Theoretical study of vibration distinctiveness of rotating cylindrical are examined for three volume fraction laws viz.: polynomial, exponential and trigonometric. These laws control functionally graded material composition in the shell radius direction. Functionally graded materials are controlled from two or more materials. In practice functionally graded material comprised of two constituent materials is used to form a cylindrical shell. For the current shell problem stainless steel and nickel are used for the shell structure. A functionally graded cylindrical shell is sanctioned into two types by interchanging order of constituent materials from inner and outer side for Type I and Type II cylindrical shell arrangement. Fabric composition of a functionally graded material in a shell thickness direction is controlled by volume fraction law. Variation of power law exponent brings change in frequency values. Influence of this physical change is investigated to evade future complications. This procedure is capable to cater any boundary condition by changing the axial wave number. But for simplicity, numerical results have been evaluated for clamped- simply supported rotating cylindrical shells. It has been observed from these results that shell frequency is bifurcated into two parts: one is related to the backward wave and other with forward wave. It is concluded that the value of backward frequency is some bit higher than that forward frequency. Influence of volume fraction laws have been examined on shell frequencies. Backward and forward frequency curves for a volume fraction law are upper than those related to two other volume fraction laws. The results generated furnish the evidence regarding applicability of present shell model and also verified by earlier published literature.

Key Words
clamped-simply supported; fraction laws; frequency response; rotating speed

Address
Muzamal Hussain: Department of Mathematics, Govt. College University Faisalabad, 38000, Faisalabad, Pakistan

Abstract
The present paper deals with nonlinear deflection analysis of hyperelastic plates rested on elastic foundation and subject to a transverse point force. For modeling of hyperelastic material, three-parameter Ishihara model has been employed. The plate formulation is based on classic plate theory accounting for von-Karman geometric nonlinearity. Therefore, both material and geometric nonlinearities have been considered based on Ishihara hyperelastic plate model. The governing equations for the plate have been derived based on Hamilton's rule and then solved via Galerkin's method. Obtained results show that material parameters of hyperelastic material play an important role in defection analysis. Also, the effects of foundation parameter and load location on plate deflections will be discussed.

Key Words
deflection; Galerkin

Address
Behzad Mohasel Afshari: Fidar Project Qaem Company, Darvazeh Dolat, Tehran, Iran
Seyed Sajad Mirjavadi: Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar
Mohammad Reza Barati: Respina Lubricant Supply Company, Poonak, Tehran, Iran

Abstract
Recently, an increasing number of cutting-edged studies have shown that designing a smart active control for realtime implementation requires piles of hard-work criteria in the design process, including performance controllers to reduce the tracking errors and tolerance to external interference and measure system disturbed perturbations. This article proposes an effective artificial-intelligence method using these rigorous criteria, which can be translated into general control plants for the management of civil engineering installations. To facilitate the calculation, an efficient solution process based on linear matrix (LMI) inequality has been introduced to verify the relevance of the proposed method, and extensive simulators have been carried out for the numerical constructive model in the seismic stimulation of the active rigidity. Additionally, a fuzzy model of the neural network based system (NN) is developed using an interconnected method for LDI (linear differential) representation determined for arbitrary dynamics. This expression is constructed with a nonlinear sector which converts the nonlinear model into a multiple linear deformation of the linear model and a new state sufficient to guarantee the asymptomatic stability of the Lyapunov function of the linear matrix inequality. In the control design, we incorporated H Infinity optimized development algorithm and performance analysis stability. Finally, there is a numerical practical example with simulations to show the results. The implication results in the RMS response with as well as without tuned mass damper (TMD) of the benchmark building under the external excitation, the El-Centro Earthquake, in which it also showed the simulation using evolved bat algorithmic LMI fuzzy controllers in term of RMS in acceleration and displacement of the building.

Key Words
civil structure; evolved algorithm; neural based LDI; structural health monitoring system

Address
Z.Y. Chen, Yahui Meng, Ruei-yuan Wang: School of Science, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming, Guangdong 525000, China
Timothy Chen: 2California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA

Abstract
This study collected the results of material tests and full-scale pumping tests using 127 types of concrete mixtures with compressive strength ranging from 24 to 200 MPa. The results of 242 material tests showed high correlations between the viscosity of the lubricating layer and concrete, between the slump and the yield stress of concrete, between the water-binder ratio and the viscosity of lubricating layer, and between the time required to reach 500 mm of slump flow and concrete viscosity. Based on these correlations, pumpability was predicted using 101 pumping test conditions, and their accuracy was compared to the actual test results. When the rheological properties of concrete and the lubricating layer were directly measured, the prediction result showed the highest accuracy. A high accuracy can be achieved when the measured viscosity of the lubricating layer, a key determinant of concrete pumpability, is reflected in the prediction of pumpability. When measuring rheological properties is difficult, the slump test can be used to quantitatively predict the pumpability despite the lower accuracy than those of other prediction methods.

Key Words
concrete pumping; correlation; prediction; rheological properties; slump

Address
Jung Soo Lee: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Myungji University, 116 Myongji-ro, Cheoin-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-Do, 17058, Korea
Eun Sung Kim: BieL Inc., #417(4F), 32, Migeumil-ro 90beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-Do, 13627, Korea
Kyong Pil Jang: Department of Building Research, Korea Institute of Civil Engineering and Building Technology, 283,
Goyangdae-Ro, Ilsanseo-Gu, Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 10223, Korea
Chan Kyu Park: Institute of Construction Technology, Samsung C & T Corporation, 26, Sanil-ro 6-gil, Gangdong-gu, Seoul, 05288, Korea
Seung Hee Kwon: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Myungji University, 116 Myongji-ro, Cheoin-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-Do, 17058, Korea


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